TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Research question
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Scope and limitation of the study
1.8 Definition of terms
1.9 Organization of the study
2.1 theoretical review
2.2 Conceptual review
2.3 empirical review
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Area of the study
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
This study examines the impact of ICT on the economic empowerment of Nigerian women. The study survey the impact of extended education ICT related knowledge on the competitiveness of female workers in a growing globalized labour market. The study also looked at the challenges faced by women in juxtaposing their roles as wives and mothers in relation to global demand for their skills. Data for the study was gathered through a well-structured questionnaire administered to a randomly selected female graduate of national center for women development as respondents, professionals and non-professionals alike. It was discovered that level of education has certain role to play in the determination of women empowerment, but its importance has been eroded by the nature of ICT, which, in some cases, requires only operant abilities to ensure the liberation of women from poverty, subjugation and disease.
1.1 Background of the study
Information and Communications Technology (ICT) has become a catchword with different interpretations and viewpoints even among experts. As the name suggests, ICT encompasses all the technology that facilitates the processing, transfer and exchange of information and communication services. In principle ICTs have always been available since the advent of the printing press. The only difference is that from the late twentieth century, rapid advances in technology changed the traditional ways in which information was processed, communications conducted, and services available (Adu 2002). These technological advances have changed business operations and the way people communicate. They have introduced new efficiencies in old services as well as numerous new ones. One could even imagine to go as far as replacing the term “Post-industrial Society” with ―Information Society”, that is a society where the ability to access, search, use, create and exchange information is the key for individual and collective well-being (Kaplan 2001). Although great expectations have been placed on information technology as a tool for transforming women’s lives and as an alleged enabler for empowerment, relatively little is known about how, when, and why such transformations occur (Wheeler 2008). The possibilities for greater women’s empowerment via web-powered ICT demonstrate the need for evidence based research based on how women currently access and use web-powered ICTs and the nature of the gender digital divide that persists despite growing global statistics on mobile phone and web-enabled ICT use. There is a tremendous pace and improvement in ICT field globally and the need for the skills of the ICT work force to keep up with the pace of technological change is paramount. Empowerment of women means investing in women’s rights with legal backing, and moral and financial support to enable women function effectively (Ogbomo n.d). The empowerment of women involves assessment of women’s needs and designing programmes to address those needs. ICT sector remains a buoyant and growing sector for empowerment, a key factor that enhances national development. Advances in ICT are occurring on an incredible scale in many countries that have translated to a definite abundance of wealth and opportunities for their entire people (Olaleye 2013). ICTs are a complex and heterogonous set of goods, applications and services used for producing, distributing, processing and transforming information, included in this set are the outputs of industries as diverse as telecommunication, television and radio broadcasting, computer hardware and software, computer services and electronic media. Employment in the ICT sector has continued to grow significantly in recent years. The perception in most countries that ICT sector is a male-dominated industry persists. Male dominated most high- value and income jobs in the ICT sector. The research carried out in both developed and developing countries, revealed classic cases of vertical gender segregation, with women more strongly represented in lower ICT occupations than in higher status, and higher paid areas. The study showed that 15 per cent of ICT managers, and only 11 percent of IT strategy and planning professionals were women (Girls in ICT portal n.d). Gillian Goddard (n.d) said that the lack of belief in our female to be engaged in ICT in different areas constituted an obstacle. Burch a gender and information society activist in Latin America, echoed this sentiment. “ICT policy, perhaps even more than other policy areas, is often perceived as an issue reserved for specialists. It is therefore not often seen by women’s organizations or other gender focused groups as something with important development and social implications that they should therefore take on in the frame work of their advocacy initiatives. Hafkin (2002) said that ICT sector was not only seen as an area for specialists, women as well as men regard it as the province of men. The African information society Gender Working Group argued and fell into the trap of saying” “these are not things for us to deal with” hence women are accepting gender stereotypes. In order for women and girls to enter the information ages and for ICT policy to be engendered, women must transcend these attitudinal barriers (Marcelle 2000). Observations have shown that girls and women are lacking behind in ICT field as far as getting adequate knowledge is concerned. The society seems to perceive ICT sector as masculine dominated occupation. It is apparent that culturally certain occupations are preserved of women folk. It seems the women are not keeping pace with ICT but the men are taking upper hands in gaining more access to ICT sector. The purpose of this paper is to examine ICT usage among women and girls, and the various ICT opportunities that are beneficial to women, and so to come up with strategies that could promote ICT opportunities and subsequent women empowerment.
This project seeks to deliver evidence-based research on women and the web to facilitate policy dialogue on women’s empowerment and ICT issues in countries. Project outcomes aim to promote the commitment and incorporation of action plans on women’s rights in ICT decision and policy-making spheres. Global, regional and national ICT governance and policy frameworks can either enable full participation in the information society or inhibit access to technology, information and knowledge. Representation of women’s rights issues in policymaking spheres is, therefore, vital to creating conditions and regulations that will enable women to maximize possibilities of benefiting from the digital society. Policy dialogue on gender issues aims to encourage the commitment of institutions to gender and ICT policy action plans. Despite the opportunities that exist for supporting women’s rights on and through the web, there is very little statistically relevant data on women and ICTs, and none of the major gender equality indices incorporate ICTs. When ICT data excludes data on women specifically, women’s social realities become ignored in data and in policy (Hafkin 2002, Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development 2014). As web-enabled ICTs become increasingly central to all aspects of everyday life, integrating women’s perspectives in all aspects of policy and outreach becomes a major cause for attention. A gap exists for multi-country household data on web enabled ICT access and use by women, as well as specific gender-based challenges that might be addressed by mainstreaming ICTs into women’s rights policy and program frameworks. This project addresses the call to action of the ITU in collaboration with NCWD Broadband Commission Working Group on Broadband and Gender to integrate gender and national ICT broadband policies, and to initiate action plans to achieve gender equality in access to broadband (2013). As noted in the final report of the 2013 World Telecommunication ICT Indicators Symposium (WTIS 2013), the collection and analysis of ICT gender data is a necessary prerequisite to the achievement of a more equitable global information society. The project also addresses the call to action of the UN Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development that: “Particular efforts should be made to promote the collection of data on the use of mobile cellular phones by individuals, especially in developing countries, because in many of these countries especially Nigeria they are the most-used form of ICT, especially by girls and women.” This project rests on the premise that there is a need to look beyond descriptive statistics on individual and household ICT access and use, and to dive into analytical findings on the daily lived experiences of women accessing and using the web around the world. Research ICT Africa suggests that “Without analysis, descriptive data is not only incomplete but can also mislead policymakers on the correct points of policy intervention aimed at encouraging greater gender equity in ICTs” (RIA 2012). Thus, web/ICT related data for men and women is not only about differential access and use, but about the personal, social and institutional consequences of such differential access and use.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The girl child throughout history has been subjected to varying degrees of deprivations and subjugation. She has been stifled mentally, psychologically and physically by the dictates of male – dominated cultures and traditions that cut across virtually all races of the world. The fact is; she has been so second rated that even an account of her past heroic deeds has been recorded as “his “story”. The World Bank (2001) stated that“…in no region do women enjoy equal legal, social, and economic rights. Women have fewer resources than men, and more limited economic opportunities and political participation. Women and girls bear the most direct cost of these inequalities but the harm ultimately extends to everyone. Gender inequalities persist because they are supported by social norms and legal institutions, by the choices and behaviours of households, and by regulations and incentives that affect the way economies function”. Despite the opportunities that exist for supporting women’s rights on and through the web, there is very little statistically relevant data on women and ICTs, and none of the major gender equality indices incorporate ICTs. It is in view of the above that the researcher intends to investigate the impact of ICT on the economic empowerment of Nigerian women.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of ICT on the economic empowerment of Nigerian women, but to aid the completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following specific objective;
- i) To examine the impact of ICT on the economic empowerment of Nigerian women
- ii) To ascertain if there is any significant relationship between ICT and women economic empowerment
iii) To examine the role of ICT in bridging the gap of gender inequality in Nigeria in employment opportunity.
- iv) To examine the effect NCWD ICT programs in women empowerment 4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study
- i) Does ICT have any impact on the economic empowerment of Nigerian women?
- ii) Is there any significant relationship between ICT and women economic empowerment?
iii) Does ICT play any role in bridging the gap of gender inequality in Nigeria when it comes to employment opportunity?
- iv) Does NCWD ICT programs have any effect in women empowerment?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher in null and alternate form
H0: there is no significant relationship between ICT and women economic empowerment
H1: there is a significant relationship between ICT and women economic empowerment
H0: An NCWD ICT program does not have any significant effect in women empowerment
H2: An NCWD ICT program does have a significant effect in women empowerment
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of importance to the management of the national center for women development (NCWD) as the study seek to explore the impact of NCWD ICT center on the empowerment and development of her participant since 2003 to 2017 which is the time under review, as this will give the management of NCWD an insight on how to re-strategize for effective performance and goal attainment, the study will also be of great importance to the ministry of women affairs and national development as the literature seek to reiterate the role of women in national development. The study will also be of great importance to researchers who intend to embark on a study in a similar topic as the study will serve as a reference point to further study, finally, the study will be of importance to students, teachers, academia’s and the general public as the study will contribute to the pool of existing literature on the subject matter and also contribute to knowledge on the subject matter.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the impact of ICT on the economic empowerment of Nigerian women, with emphasis on NCWD ICT center graduate from 2003 to 2017, in view of the challenges encountered by the researcher in the cause of the study, relevant literature were extensively reviewed and data collected were dully analyzed and interpreted.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In the course of the study, there were several factors that limited the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
- c) Finance: Limited Access to the required finance was a major constrain to the scope of the study as it become cumbersome to cover more grounds and to print more.
1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Information and communications technology (ICT) is an extensional term for information technology (IT) that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications and computers, as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audiovisual systems, that enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.
Economic empowerment is the capacity of women and men to participate in, contribute to and benefit from growth processes in ways that recognise the value of their contributions, respect their dignity and make it possible to negotiate a fairer distribution of the benefits of growth.
Women’s empowerment is the process in which women elaborate and recreate what it is that they can be, do, and accomplish in a circumstance that they previously were denied
1.10 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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