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Virtual Learning Vs. Hybrid Learning – Patriot Press


This study was carried out to examine the impact of virtual learning on academic performance among secondary schools students in Nigeria. The study was restricted to selected private secondary school students and teachers in Uyo Metropolis in Akwa Ibom State which made up the Population of the study. A total sample size of three hundred respondents was randomly drawn from six (6) private secondary schools in the city of Uyo. The study adopted a descriptive survey method for it design, which simple percentage frequency tables were used for the analysis and the hypothesis were tested using Chi-square analytical tools. The interview and reports from the retrieved questionnaires revealed that; Virtual learning method do enhance students’ academic performance of students. Also, there is a significant relationship between virtual learning and academic performance of students. It was concluded that virtual learning strategy (VLS) impacted significantly on the academic performance of students in the study area. The study recommends that teachers should try to apply the virtual learning strategy in teaching as this was found to impact on the students’ achievement positively.





Title Page                                                                                  i

Certification                                                                                      ii

Dedication                                                                               iii

Acknowledgement                                                                             iv

Table of Contents                                                                    v

List of Tables                                                                                    viii

List of Figures                                                                         ix

Abstract                                                                                  x



  • Background of the Study               1 – 6
  • Statement of the Problem    6 – 7
  • Purpose of the Study                     7
  • Research Questions         7
  • Research Hypotheses         7
  • Significance of the Study         8
  • Scope and Limitation of the Study         8
  • Operational Definition of Terms         9



2.0     Introduction                                                                                       10   

2.1     Conceptual Review                                     11-13

2.2 Theoretical Framework                                              23-30

2.3 Review of Empirical Studies                                    33-36

2.10   Summary of Literature Review                            36


3.1     Research Design                                                     37

3.2     Population of the Study                                         37

3.3     Sample and Sampling Techniques                                 38

3.4     Research Instruments                                                      38

3.5     Validity of the Instruments                                              38-39

3.6     Reliability of the Instruments                                          39

3.7     Method of Data Collection                                              39

3.8     Method of Data Analysis                                                 40


4.1     Introduction                                                                      41

4.2     Descriptive Analysis of Demographic Background of Respondents 41-42

4.3     Testing of Hypothesis                                                             42-44

4.4     Discussion of Findings                                                  44


5.1     Summary of the Study                                                   45

5.2     Conclusion                                                                       45

5.3     Recommendations                                                                     46

References                                                                                                    47-51



                                                 CHAPTER ONE


1.1 Background to the Study

One type of web-based learning is instruction through virtual learning. It is training given to browser-equipped learners anytime, anywhere over the Internet or a collaborative intranet (Rouse, 2005). One concept in particular that has provided some helpful insights on learning in academic and other educational settings is learning style. Previous studies show that factors that are both intellectual and non-intellectual have an impact on students’ academic success across the board (Magulod, 2019). Understanding pupils’ preferred learning styles and study habits is crucial. Knowing the different learning styles that students who are taking applied sciences courses prefer will eventually lead to more fruitful learning experiences.

Because virtual learning is cost-effective, travel-free, and available whenever needed, it is the ideal answer to fulfilling the needs of lifelong learners. For self-motivated, independent kids, it’s a good substitute. Students can get teaching via computer software, the Internet, or both through virtual learning. This lessens or does away with the requirement that instructors and students share a classroom (Van Beek, 2011). It began in the 1980s when businesses began training new hires with computer-based programs. The method became more efficient when the Internet was developed since it allowed businesses to teach new hires from a distance and have online conversations with them to address any issues. It decreased expenses and the need to hire trainers.

There are two main approaches to teaching virtual learning. An atmosphere where everyone participates in learning at the same time is referred to as synchronous learning. Synchronous learning occurs in face-to-face settings, such as lectures. The difficulties that come with transactional distance in online education can be lessened with the usage of synchronous learning (Joel, 2003). Joel also provided examples of synchronous learning environments, including using web conferencing tools like Black Board Collaborate, Adobe Connect, Web Ex, Skype, etc. to facilitate student and instructor participation in a live class and having students participate in a chat room. With synchronous e-learning, the instructor can hold online classes. Additionally, people can communicate with professionals and peers through synchronous technologies (www.e-learningconsulting.com/consulting/what/synchronous.html). Lad (2012) defines asynchronous learning as learning that takes place without regard to distance or time. At their convenience, students can engage with the course content and one another. Furthermore, Lado stated that the appeal of e-learning is increased by its asynchronous nature.

The way that the educational system is structured has long been altered by virtual learning, sometimes known as online learning or distant learning. Any kind of learning that is done entirely or partially online is referred to as online learning, according to Means (2010). Online learning is appealing to secondary educational institutions because it provides flexibility in terms of time and place, along with enhanced communication and interaction skills (Anderson, 2004). As was already noted, a number of factors are impacting how the virtual instructional model is developing in public schools, but technology integration has been a major factor in its growth (Barbour, 2009). The expansion of online learning has been directly impacted by technological advancements (Picciano & Seaman, 2009). In order to deliver more student-centered and tailored instruction, Christensen, Horn, and Johnson (2008) give a convincing case for transforming education in this way.

Secondary schools are now using online learning more widely because to improvements in technology infrastructure and access. Distance learning has been employed for some time in postsecondary institutions, according to research by Means, Bakia, and Murphy (2014) and Wicks (2010), but it is still in its infancy as a practice in secondary educational settings. Online education is becoming more popular in public schools (Picciano & Seaman, 2009; Watson et al., 2012). In secondary school districts, there were reportedly 1,816,400 enrollments in remote education courses in 2009–2010 (Means et al., 2010). By 2019, 50% of all high school enrollments in the United States, according to Christensen and Horn (2008), will occur online. Although virtual learning is now being used and expanded in secondary schools, little research has been done in this field to support the efficacy of the online teaching approach for the secondary school population. “There is not a single, large-scale, national study using control groups in the instructional design that compares students taking online courses with traditional students,” said Patrick and Powell (2009).

Promoting equity in virtual learning

The primary goal of virtual learning is to equip students with the skills necessary to succeed as global citizens in a world where cultures and surroundings are becoming more intertwined (www.world-globaleducation.edu/01/rationals.htm). A virtual learning environment is a web-based platform that provides students with educational resources. These systems include tools for communication, cooperation, student tracking, and assessment. They are accessible from both campus and off. They are available to assist students at any time of day (morning, afternoon, and night) who are learning outside of the lecture hall. Technologies that have the ability to bring about change are responsible for the changes in the educational landscape. These adjustments have made the teaching and learning process more learner-centered and are also fostering collaboration in the classroom. It not only envelops us but also serves as the cornerstone of our civilization.

Dalmolin, Mackeivicz, Pochapski, Pilatti, and Santos (2018) contend that determining students’ preferred methods of learning will ultimately improve their educational experience.  Previous study has shown that learning styles can predict students’ academic progress. The study conducted by (Jiraporncharoen, Angkurawaranon, Chockjamsai, Deesomchok, and Euathrongchit, 2015), revealed a significant association between the academic achievement and learning styles of undergraduate students. Research by (Barman, Aziz, and Yusoff, 2014) indicates that students’ academic performance can be enhanced by understanding their strengths, such as their learning style, and knowing how to make the most of such skills. Although it has been demonstrated that students’ learning styles do play a significant role in their academic achievement, these findings vary from nation to nation and are mostly based on research conducted in other countries.  A nation never stops researching and creating its own distinctive teaching methods in order to suit the needs particular to its environment, claims (Gokalp, 2013).  In his closing remarks, he suggested that Nigerians’ unique learning styles might not be compatible with the majority of schools’ instructional strategies. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the relationship between learning styles and academic achievement from a country-context perspective (Bennett, 1993), which is what this study attempts to do.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The issue of students’ inadequate academic performance in science education continued unabatedly for a very long time. Researchers often point to a lack of instructional materials, an inadequate Chemistry lab, and other reasons; occasionally, the laboratory exists only in the teachers’ minds (Nbina and Obomanu, 2011; Nkanu, 2009; Oriade, 2008). Despite the fact that this problem has been addressed, something is still missing. It is essential to have a thorough awareness of the preferred learning methods of the students. However, some learning-related concepts, such as the perception of academic control and achievement motivation, have drawn a lot of attention in the process of identifying factors impacting learning-related performance (Cano-Garcia & Hughes, 2000). In economics classes, the majority of educators use traditional teaching techniques, most frequently the lecture method or occasionally the lecture and discussion method. The employment of traditional teaching methods has led to the students’ last session’s poor academic achievement even though these current pupils are adults who will eventually become citizens of the country. If they are well-equipped with this method of learning, they can apply it to the process of lifelong learning, which is a better way to create knowledge in the globalization era. The path to advancement is education. It sharpens our brain and transforms an inquisitive one into an intellectual one. Giving the appropriate information to the right audience at the right time in the right format is urgently needed. Therefore, a customized learning environment that integrates the advantages of both conventional and modern learning is necessary right now. Several research (Ahmad et al., 2006; Viera Boumová, 2008; Mitchell and Frorer, 2010) demonstrate the positive effects of blended learning on students’ academic development. Studies show that a lot of institutions continue to teach senior secondary students in a lecture-plus-discussion format. The largest challenge facing those developing and delivering blended learning, especially in light of the recent COVID-19 lockout, is figuring out instructional approaches that mesh well with the conditions inherent in these two very distinct environments. Therefore, this present study will investigate the impact of virtual learning on academic performance of secondary school students in Nigeria.

1.3 Aims/Objectives of the Study

The main aim of this study is to examine the impact of virtual learning on academic performance of secondary school students in Nigeria. Specifically, the study intends to:

  1. Determine the extent virtual learning method enhance students’ academic performance of students.
  2. Examine the significant relationship between virtual learning and academic performance of students.
  3. Ascertain the implications of the implementation of virtual learning to both students and teachers in secondary schools.
  4. To proffer solutions to the challenges associated to virtual learning and students’ academic performance in secondary schools.

1.4 Research Questions

To achieve the above objectives, this study will answer the following research questions:

  1. Does virtual learning method enhance students’ academic performance of students?
  2. Is there any significant relationship between virtual learning and academic performance of students?
  3. Are there any implications from the implementation of virtual learning to both students and teachers in secondary schools?
  4. Are there solutions to the challenges associated to virtual learning and students’ academic performance in secondary schools?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

The following statement of hypotheses will be tested in the course of the study;

H0: Virtual learning method does not enhance students’ academic performance of students.

H1: Virtual learning method do enhance students’ academic performance of students.

H0: There is no significant relationship between virtual learning and academic performance of students.

H2: There is a significant relationship between virtual learning and academic performance of students.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The current understanding of virtual learning in terms of its uses, accessibility, and application will be expanded by comparing the two learning methodologies offered by this research. Giving school administrators and teachers additional knowledge about which approaches are more suitable and effective for learning, this research offers a clear presentation on different learning methods for on-site learning as well as virtual learning.

In particular, this research will aid in decision-making for the government, school administrators, instructors, and students.

The government will also understand that encouraging virtual learning in all secondary schools is a preventative measure against further lockdowns like the ones brought on by the corona virus last year. The success of virtual learning in the classroom may also be considered by school administrators and teachers who may contemplate being exposed to ICT tools.

1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study focuses primarily on investigating the the impact of virtual learning on academic performance of secondary school students in Nigeria. The scope of this study therefore includes the subject of virtual learning in relation to students’ academic performance in some private secondary schools in Uyo Metropolis. It will also covers:

  • The extent to which different expected strategies are adopted in virtual learning;
  • The extent to which students’ have access and make use of ICT tools in the classroom and how it has affect them academically.

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

The following terms are defined as used in the context of this study:

Virtual Learning: As use in this study, virtual learning is a learning experience that is enhanced through utilizing computers and/or the internet both outside and inside the facilities of the educational organization.

Academic Performance: As it is used in this study, it is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long term educational goals. Completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor’s degrees represent academic achievement.