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| Format: Ms Word | 1-5 Chapters | Table of Content|


Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE

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TITLE PAGE                                                                  




Table of Content

List of Tables



1.1     Background of the study

1.2     Statement of the problem

1.3     Objective of the study

1.4     Research Question

1.5     Significance of the study

1.6     Definition of terms


2.1     Review of concepts

2.2     Theoretical Framework

2.3     Review of Empirical studies

2.5     Chapter Summary


3.1     Research Design

3.2     Population of the study

3.3     Sample size determination

3.4     Sample size selection technique and procedure

3.5 Research Instrument and Administration

3.6     Method of data collection

3.7     Method of data analysis

3.8     Validity and Reliability of the study

3.9     Ethical Consideration


4.1     Data Presentation

4.2     Answering Research Questions


5.1     Summary

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendation




The broad objective of this study borders on the implication of ritualism on moral development of Nigeria Youth using Owerri metropolis in Imo State as case study. The research design adopted for this study is the survey method in data collection. It is used to obtain the peoples opinion through the questionnaire. The sampling technique adopted for this research is purposive sampling technique. A researchers purposively selected 150 respondent who are Youths in Owerri Mucipal, Imo State was drawn as the sample size for the study.Data was analyzed using simple percentage in frequencies and tables. Hypothesis test was conducted using Chi-Square Statistical package for social science (SPSS). Findings of the study reveals that youth involvement in ritualism has the potency of undermining  their moral development hence they cannot uphold societal norms and values like hard work, honesty, respect for elders, cooperation, self reliance, decent dressing, among others. Additionally, the High rate of ritualism especially in Owerri Municipal  contributes to moral decadence and societal deterioration   thus becomes a matter that requires urgent attention in Nigeria Society. The study therefore recommends that there should be no sacred cows in terms of punishment for the ritualists. Government, Civil Societies and various Non-governmental organizations  should identify ritual killing as a harmful tradition in its programs and campaigns should be carried out to expose the ignorance, superstition and rationale underlie the belief and practice of ritual killing in Nigeria.



  1. Background of the study

Moral education is an issue that is currently being widely discussed as a result of the moral decadence of youths. The Nigerian society particularly is now in serious crisis for the high level of immorality that prevails in our society perpetrated by Youth. Today so many adolescent and adults are delinquent and divided in character.These range from  immoral activities such as rape, sexual violence, and deviant  behaviours  to  dire  criminal  activities  such  as  man-stealing, kidnapping, human sacrifice, murder, armed robbery, vandalism, and a host  of others. Within  the space  of the last few years, Nigeria has recorded  an increase in ritual killing.

Ritual killing is a common phenomenon in Nigerian daily life. It has become a regular event when hundreds of Nigerians lost their lives to ritual killers or what Nwakanma, & Abu, (2020) called, “Head Hunters.” The ritual killers go about in search of human parts – heads, breasts, tongues, and sex organs – as demanded by witch doctors, juju priests, traditional medicine men or women and/or occultists who require such for their dubious sacrifices or for the preparation of assorted magical portions (Igwe, 2010). In daily newspapers and magazines, many more Nigerians than ever before are declared missing, just as the incidence of ritual killings attains worrisome dimensions. Yet the authorities appear helpless (Aiyetan, 2003).

In the contemporary Nigeria, ritual killing has taken new dimension. Tell magazines describe the scene as the “Reign of the Ritualists” (Elesho2004). Many diverse means are used to kidnap people with evil intentions; especially for rituals. Many of those kidnapped for such purposes are long gone but there are a lucky few who actually live to tell the story of their encountered with the ritualists. Some of the kidnappers caught with their victims some time dead or half-dead also testified of their dubious acts (Aiyetan, 2003). There are all sorts of stories of various techniques of kidnapping; some people disappeared on picking or touching some items set as trap by ritualists or kidnappers. It seems obvious in Nigeria that ritual killers are more prevalent at certain seasons in the year – like the weeks leading to Christmas and during some yearly pilgrimages. It is generally believed that people engage in sacrifice of human beings to get money to spend at such festive periods. There are some known cases of people who killed their wives, husbands, mothers or even their children for money making rituals (Aiyetan, 2003).

Notably, Yahoo plus rituals is the latest on board which is an advanced development to that of normal Yahoo – Yahoo crime. Mostyahoo plus boys do not need to defraud or fleece anyone in order to have money. In most cases, they just need to have sex with girls in order to take their destiny and make them look useless or died suddenly thereafter. Yahoo ritualists look for ladies‟ underwear for ritual. For the fear of Yahoo Boys, people in some parts of the country no longer hang their clothes on ropes outside in order not to fall victim of Yahoo ritualists (Ritualists, 2018).

According to Aghawenu (202),the crazy desire cuts across all geographical boundaries andsocial strata and the extremes Nigerians can go in their bid to satiate their appetite for cheap wealth and varieties of life are unprecedented which is deterimental to the moral development of these youths.

  1. Statement of the problem

Inculcation of morality is the basic task of socialization process in every culture which includes the communication of moral standard, shaping and enforcing the practice of “good” behaviours in the development child. However, moral issues have been neglected in the present time which resulted into serious moral decadence. It could be argued that the neglect of moral education is responsible for the rampant cases of armed robbery, unwanted pregnancies, child abandonment, examination malpractice, cultism, drug trafficking, embezzlement of public fund, corruption, dishonesty etc. This negligence could be part of the explanation for the disorders, crisis and anxiety that are so common in our society.

With  these  recurrent  incidences  of  ritual  killings  in  the  country, one is forced to ask why such brutal and barbaric act persists in spite of the level of civilization and globalization. Various explanations have  been offered  by  scholars  and  many social  scientists. While some blame the problem on the economic conditions in the country especially as ritual killings increase in  periods of economic hardship; others argue that traditional beliefs in fetish and rituals have permeated the twenty-first century. Salisbury (2012) noted that those who practice  sacrifice and ritual killings believe them to be acts of spiritual fortification. Motivations to carry out these acts include the use of  human body parts for medicinal purposes  and  the  belief  that  human  body  parts  possess  supernatural  powers  that  bring  prosperity  and protection.  In Uganda,  for  instance,  researches have shown  that  human  sacrifice is  usually done by  many wealthy  persons  in  an  effort  to  expand  their  fortunes.  In  Swaziland  and  Liberia,  politicians  allegedly commission ritual killings to improve their odds in elections ( Igwe, 2010).

 In Nigeria, many people  still  believe  that  charms and  ritual sacrifices can  fortify them  spiritually,  enhance  their  fortunes  in business and during elections,  or protect  them from harm, disease,  poverty,  accident, death or destruction. These  beliefs  have  been  identified  to  further  encourage  some  youth  to  participate  in  ritual  murders  to appease deities, pray for supernatural favours, ward off misfortune or create mystical wealth hence endangering their moral development. Thus it is agianst this background that this study seeks to examine the implication of ritualism on moral development of Nigeria Youth.

1.3     Objective of the study

The broad goal of this study borders on the implication of ritualism on moral development of Nigeria Youth. Specifically the study focused on the following precise objectives:

  1. To determine the nature of ritual killings perpetuated by Nigeria Youth
  2. To ascertain the purpose of youth engagement in ritualism.
  3. To investigate whether youth involvement in ritualism undermine their moral development.
  4. To establish whether high rate of  ritualism contributes to moral decadence in Nigeria Society.

1.4     Research Hypothesis

HO1: Youth involvement in ritualism does not  undermine their moral development.

HO2: High rate of ritualism contributes to moral decadence in Nigeria Society.

1.5     Significance of the Study

The result of the study will be of relevance to policy makers, Nigeria Youths and religious bodies. To policy makers, findings of the study will enlighten policy makers on the need to establish guiding principles to curtail ritual killing and establish punishment for those caught in this devilish act. To government, the study will also emphasize on the need to introduce poverty alleviation program, employment opportunities and support of entrepreneur as this will go a long way in reducing criminal behaviour among jobless youths. More the study will emphasize the need for  to intensify teaching of moral education in schools, universities and as well encourage teachers/lecturers that teach moral education to be role model for our youths among others as this will reduce the rate of ritualism in Nigeria. Empirically, the study will add to the body of existing literature on ritualism as serve as reference material to scholars and student who wishes to conduct further studies in related field.

1.6     Scope of the study

The scope of this study borders on the implication of ritualism on moral development of Nigeria Youth. The study will further discuss the nature and purpose for ritual killings perpetuated by Nigeria Youth. It will investigate if youths’ involvement in ritualism undermine their moral development and if high rate of  ritualism contributes to moral decadence in Nigeria Society. The study is however delimited to South-East region with reference to  Owerri Municipal, Imo State.

1.7 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scantiness of literature on  implication of ritualism on moral development of Nigeria Youth. discourse. Thus much time and organization was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection. Also the study is limited in period as the study covered only South East region precisely owerri Municipal. Therefore findings of this study cannot be used for generalization for other regions or State  which  creates a  gap for further studies.

1.8     Definition of terms

Ritualism:  Also known as Ritual killings is a violent and extreme type of criminal homicide in which vital organs of the victim are excised by the slayers for use in “sacred” rites.

Moral development: Moral development focuses on the emergence, change, and understanding of morality from infancy through adulthood. Morality develops across a lifetime and is influenced by an individual’s experiences and behavior when faced with moral issues through different periods of physical and cognitive development.

Moral decadence: This means a gross reduction in the moral values in a particular society. It appears to be a fall’ in the moral standard of the society and a  deterioration or a collapse in upholding our societal values, beliefs, norms and ethical standards.



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