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- Background of the study
Learning is enhance when given in a rich environment ,if the classroom environment is conducive and has all necessary learning facilities that is ,the more conducive school environment is, the greater the opportunity to learn ,in other words, a bare and hostile classroom and school environment offer little stimulation to learning (Anyanwu and Izuagba 2009) .The school environment includes the class room libraries , laboratories, football field, building, peers, teaching method, teachers quarters, technical workshop, etc The environment here includes both physical psychological and social environment, mutual relationship between the students and the teachers. The environment should be made to suit the purpose of learning.
The teacher/learner is at center of the teaching and learning process; all energies spent by the teacher in and outside the classroom and in the school environment are aimed at ensuring positive all round development.
Thus, the school is an established institution where the behavior of a child is shaped to get him equipped for a meaningful living in the society, the school environment should possess features essential for achieving the goals of education.
In essence, the following areas of the school are recognized to have positive influence on the academic performance of the child, the school building, the school infrastructure, and the school personnel. (Izuagba and Obiefuna 2009)
Glassman (2000) asserted that comfortable and caring environment among other treatment helps to enhance students academic performance, The school facilities and infrastructures are essential for the realization of the educational objectives, facilities such as white board, projector, notice board, clock, bell, chairs,tables,desk,first aid box, textbooks etc ,are necessary for effective administration of schools,
School environment refers to the instructional administrative circulation and therefore school environment remains an important area that should be studied and well managed to enhance students academic performance (Oluchukwu 2000).
The extent to which students learning could be enhanced depends on their interaction within the school premises, the structure of their classroom, availability of instructional facilities and accessories (Ajao2000), it is believed that a well planned school will gear up expected outcome of education that will facilitate good social political and economic emancipation, effective teaching and learning process and academic performance of the students.
Environment is one of the major factor that determine an individual’s capacity to learn and also provides basis for success in future achievement, therefore, this calls for conceited efforts on the parts of the parents, educators and government to provide adequate school facilities such as well-equipped laboratories, functional libraries, and sporting facilities to enhance the intellectual and academic performance of the school effects on teachers students and the learning process, poor ventilation ,noise, high penetration of carbon dioxide into the classroom, inconsistent temperature makes teaching and learning difficult, poor maintenance and ineffective ventilation system leads to poor health among students as well as teachers which in evitable leads to poor health among students as well as teachers which inevitably lead to poor academic performance(Ostender and Lyon 2001), believe that these factors can adversely affect students behavior and also lead to rate of frustration among teachers and poor leaning attitude among student.
The academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of great concern to the government, teachers, parent and the students themselves, the standard of education does not depend only on the teacher as reflected in the performance of their duties but also in the effective co—ordination of the school environment (Ajao,2000) Beyond the direct effect which these inadequate facilities have on students ability to learn , it’s combination with other facilities such as instructional aid and infrastructure creates uncomfortable frustrating work space for teacher as well as unconducive atmosphere for the students which manifests in poor concentration and hyperactivity, thereby creating a stressful set of working condition for teachers (Ajayi, 2003).Therefore stress and job dissatisfaction are common precursors which lowers teachers enthusing, hence the above mentioned characteristics of school facilities have effects upon the academic performance of the students ,the school cannot operate in isolation of its immediate social, physical environment, this is because what happen in the immediate environment help to determine the curriculum and the quality of teachers available to the school any point in time. The nature of environment a student passes through can either hinder or facilitate his ability at acquiring knowledge (Ajayi 2003) Frazier (2002), Opined that the Psycho-Socio Physical
Factors that affect learning are;
- The learning environment
- The learning
- The teacher
The physical factor in learning deals with the environment where actual teaching and learning takes place physical factors are completely outside the learners control ,most of the child’s teaching and learning normally take place either in the classroom or laboratory, therefore, there is need for a productive learning environment which according to; Arends(2005), is one where students have positive attitude towards themselves and their classroom that is their fellow student or peers and where they display a high degree of academic performance ,both motivation and involvement, in academic tasks. Teacher’s decision and action also help to shape the classroom environment .the class room environment must be designed to support intellectual risk taking and foster intrinsic motivation so that students will be creative and self-reliance in their learning .Teachers have to create the right attitude in students towards learning and to gain their leadership functions as enabling activities that is establishing the condition and interacting with students in ways that enhance their learning (Miller2010). To this end, there is need to study the influence of school environment on the academic performance of ss2 biology students in Aba North Local Government Area of Abia state,
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Most schools are faced with problems such as inadequate libraries, classroom, staffroom, laboratory, teaching equipment’s like instructional aids, and technical workshop. These problems have posed great challenges to the teaching and learning process and also hinder the academic performance of Nigerian students. It is generally believed that if the learning environment is conducive ,and availability of teaching materials, biology students in secondary schools will be more educated and there will be less risk of low academic performance, hence does the inadequacy, associated. With inadequate libraries, classroom, teaching equipment among other hinder academic performance of ss2 biology students in Aba North local Government area of Abia state.
- OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are;
- To find out the extent which school teaching equipment and instructional materials influence student academic achievement
- To find out the rate to which school Location affect the academic performance of biology student in secondary school
- To identify the influence of class size on the academic performance of student in secondary school.
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: there is no influence of class size on the academic performance of student in secondary school.
H1: there is influence of class size on the academic performance of student in secondary school.
H02: school Location do not affect the academic performance of biology student in secondary school
H2: school Location affect the academic performance of biology student in secondary school
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will be beneficial to :
With the help of the study the teachers should develop and establish instructional programmes, make use of instructional aids, establish effective method of teacher and adopt good leadership style.
This study will enable the students to observe and recognise some school environment factor and the effect on their academic performance. It will also help them to make appropriate amendment where necessary.
The result of this study will help parents to contribute to the up keep and development of the school environment financially and materially through the organization of parent teacher Association (P T A) a meeting conducted in school.
Guidance counselors will benefit from this study it will enable this group of people to lead the student in their right and appropriate future career base on their academic performance.
The result of this study will help the school to appreciate the usefulness and benefit of conducive school environment for biology student it will also create room for proper amendment awareness and comparison among different schools.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers The influence of school environment on the learning and teaching of biology in Akwanga L.G.A. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
DEFINITION OF TERMS
SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT: Environment. A school environment is broadly characterized by its facilities, classrooms, school-based health supports, and disciplinary policies and practices. It sets the stage for the external factors that affect students.
LEARNING AND TEACHING: Teaching, learning, assessment, curriculum and pedagogy. Teaching, learning and assessment are aspects of the curriculum for which lecturers take responsibility. To teach is to engage students in learning; thus teaching consists of getting students involved in the active construction of knowledge.
BIOLOGY: Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution.