1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Until recently there has been a general resistance to investment in training problem in the public service because of the belief that ‘‘empolyees hired under cue to problems must be presumed tp be qualified, that they were already trained for their jobs, and that if this was not so it was evident that selection of personnel problem’’ (Stahl, 1976). This assumption has been jettisoned as the need for training become obvious both in the private and the public sectors. Many organizations have come to recognize that outcome of training.
Indeed, the importance of training and development is more obvious given the growing complexity problem moderating variables, among other things. Training and development helps to ensure that organization members possess the drive for level of training they need to perform their jobs effectively, outcome of training. Despite the recognition of the importance of training by management experts and Government as expressed societal constraints, the experience with manpower training and development in the Nigeria public service has been more of ruse and waste.
Manpower development is a process of intellectual and emotional achievement through providing the means by which people can grow on their jobs. It relates to series of activities, which an enterprise would embark upon to improve its managerial capacity. Manpower development is important in any discussion of strategic human resources management.
According to Haribison (1973), human being constitute the ultimate basis of anation’s wealth. This proposition applies to the West African Examination Council (WAEC). The increase in organizational activities moderate variable organization chance becoming a challenge as well as imperative for the management of organization. Hence, training and development of staff on whom the huge responsibility of furthering these goals rest, must take top priority if the organization must continue to enjoy maximum performance from the staff.
The international Labour Office (2000) affirms outcome of training improves findings and retaining a job improves productivity at work, income earning capacity, living standards, and
widens career choices of opportunities. Management experts also argue that the major function of a manager is to develop, direct, encourage and train surbodinates for optimum utilization. To Stahl (1986) training helps prepare employees for certain jobs that are unique to the public sector.
Some authors use the terms ‘‘training and development’’ as synonyms. However, some view the two concepts as being different. Jones, George and Hill, (2000) believe that training primarily focuses on teaching organizational members how to perform their current jobs and helping them acquire the knowledge and skill they need to be effective performers. Development on the other hand focuses on building the knowledge and skill of organizational members so that they will be prepared to take on new responsibilities and challenges.
In the view of Adamolekun (1983), staff development involves the training, education and career development of staff members. The purpose of training and development has been identified to include: outcome creates a pool of readily available and adequate manpower for outcome of training.
The purpose of training is to improve knowledge and skills and to change attitude (Mullins, 1999). Mullins argues further that training is capable of producing the following benefits:
i Increase the outcome;
ii Outcome and the responsibility of increased pay and promotion;
iii Give feeling of personal satisfaction and achievement, and broaden outcome;
iv Help to improve the availability and quality of staff.
Ours is a world that is currently undergoing rapid changes particularly in the area of skill and technological capability. Training is not exclusively reserved for newly employed staff but also for the old employees as well. It is therefore important for the purpose of enhancing individual performance that training and development should be made a continuous process that should last an emploee’s entire working life. This is because low and middle level employee’s need to adapt to new skill and technologies while managers and top management personnel need deeper knowledge and understanding of their jobs, level of manpower training and development output, and understanding of government and societal constraints, finance and others.
It is against this backdrop that this project examines the experience of West African Examination Council (a public service organization) on efficient and effective manpower training and development with a view to understanding the input investment in training and making appropriate recommendations on what problem? Let’s take investment as an example.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEMS
The statement of problems serves to enlighten upon the information indicated in the title of study, for the purpose of this study, the research work is therefore, The human resource (manpower) is known to be crucial to any organization’s survival and when this available resources is well utilized by adequate supply of material and financial resources, a desired goal will be achieved by the organization.
However, most organizations plan meticulously for their investment in physical and capital resources, renewing these plans as at when due or when the need arises but pay little or no attention to staff training and development. This invariably might make both the capital and other resources invested to be in vain. Many organizations fail to recognize a well defined staff training and development as a key factor that is capable of bringing about a synergy in their establishment or they are weighed down by the cost of the training and development programmes.
The very few organizations that try to address this important aspect of staffing functions treat the issues as a trivial. The programmes, carried out once in a blue moon are lopsided in terms of contents and staff participation. Also, the mentality that staff training and development is tantamount to doing your staff a great favour make most organization to fall short of their responsibility.
Training and development tend to improve employees’ ability, skill, experience, attitude and sense of belonging and on the other hand, the absence of same often leads to high labour turnover, absenteeism, waste in production, high inefficiency and low workers’ performance.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The primary objective of this study is mainly to determine how staff training and development
could serve as a tool that will enhance efficient performance in West African Examination
Council. This study will also identify the major factors that could motivate staff to perform
excellently and be happy.
This research work also tends to achieve the following objectives:
i To ascertain the rationale for Manpower Training and Development.
ii To examine the impact of the personnel function on Manpower Training and Development at the West African Examination Council.
iii To determine the Autoist/ Drive of Manpower Training and Development.
1.4 RELEVANT RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i What is the rationale for Manpower Training and Development at the West African Examination Council (WAEC)?
ii What is the impact of the personnel function on Manpower Training and Development at the West African Examination Council (WAEC)?
iii What are the Autoist / Drive of Manpower Training and Development?
1.5 RELEVANT RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The following hypotheses are tested:
H0: Investment in training does not have a positive impact on Manpower Training and Development.
H1: Investment in training has a positive impact on Manpower Training and Development.
H0: Staff selection and interview procedure do not have a positive impact on Manpower Training and Development.
H1: Staff selection and interview procedure have a positive impact on Manpower Training and Development.
H0: Staff placement and promotion do not have a positive impact on Manpower Training and Development.
H1: Staff placement and promotion have a positive impact on Manpower Training and Development
H0: Content and relevance of training programmes do have a positive impact on Manpower Training and Development.
H1: Content and relevance of training programmes have a positive impact on Manpower Training and Development.
H 0: Utilization of employee after training does not have a positive impact on Manpower Training and Development.
H1: Utilization of employee after training has a positive impact on Manpower Training and Development.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is being conducted with the aim of providing useful information that will aid the following groups of users of educational information (such as The Management, Government. Employees and the Public at large) in their various decision making.
It is hoped that at the end of this study, the findings will be beneficial to the users mentioned above and most especially management of the council in the following areas:
i Internal control of the Council (West African Examination Council).
ii Measuring the profitability and efficiency of West African Examination Council, Lagos.
iii Measuring the degree of vulnerability of West African Examination Council developmental risk attaching to it.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research work is to cover as much as possible aspects of training and development and their effect on employee’s performance in services in Nigeria because of time constraints and finances, the research will focus on West African Examination Council, in order to enhance effective research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
In order to reduce ambiguity and not to create problem for readers of this research work here are the meaning of some principal terms.
i COMPETENCE: The word competence describes the set of behaviours and characteristics, which employees apply in practice in order to able to perform effectively.
ii DEVELOPMENT: The action or process of developing, being developed, gradual unfolding or growth evaluation, the expression of a function in the form of a series.
iii EDUCATION: The Act of finding out/ deciding or the amount of values of something. This is a systematic process by which pertinent data are collected and converted into information for measuring the effects of training helping in decision making, documenting results to be used in program improvement are providing a method for determine the quality of training.
iv EMPLOYEE: A person who works for somebody or a company in return for wages.
v IMPACT: A strong impression or effect on something/ somebody the action of one object hitting another.
vi MANPOWER PLANNING: Manpower planninggenerally refers to a wide range of activities which are geared to the enhancement of development and utilization of human potentials (their knowledge talents, skills and energies) of a country or sector of the economy.
vii PERFORMANCE: An action or achievement, the process of performing something.
viii QUALITY: Degree of excellence, relative nature of kind or characteristics traits, mental or moral attitude.
ix TRANING: The process of preparing somebody or being prepared for, to draw along the prepare for performance by instructions, to instruct and discipline.
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