TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Research questions
1.4 Objective of the study
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
2.2 conceptual review
2.3 empirical review
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
Exploring the state of Nigerian leadership, there is a clear indication that the nation is in distress and therefore needs a leader who would be able to get the best out of Nigerian followers and lead the nation to stability. This leader must be trustworthy, emotionally intelligent, firm, willing to suffer for the nation, focused on breaking down ethnic divide, and inspiring hope in the people. The leader must be capable of taking in varied information and solving complex problems effectively and efficiently. This study adopts the concept of leadership as one that involves a social influence process, a leader/leaders and followers. This perspective is impacted by social psychological principles of social influence and clinical psychology socio-emotional intelligence and will therefore focuses on the need for charismatic and effective leadership for the development of Nigeria.
1.1 Background of the study
Competition on the 21st century’s global economy is complex and filled with challenges as well as opportunities (Ireand & Hitt, 2005). With the aim of well preparing to compete and operate in a more unpredictable environment, companies have realized that the organizational performance is no longer solely dependent on the allocation of tangible resources, but rather on the human resources such as effective leaders (Masa’deh et al., 2014). Effective leadership is thus the foundation of competitive advantage for all kinds of organization (Avolio, 1999; Lado, Boyd, & Wright, 1992; Rowe, 2001). Riaz and Haider (2010) also state that effective leadership plays a crucial role in better performance of the enterprise, because a leader is the one who set up role models to his staff , provide guidance for employees when they face challenges or encounter difficulties, and build up organizational superiority for continuous development (Chu & Lai, 2011; Odumeru & Ifeanyi, 2013). One of earliest studies of leadership may start with an unique concentration on the theory of “Great Man” (Zareen et al., 2015). This concept was emphasized by Galton (2009) in his book “Hereditary Genius” (Zaccaro, 2007). Proponents of the great man theory believe that leadership is a characteristic ability owned by outstanding individuals. Leaders are born and have certain innate traits that help them become influential. A conclusion that leaders cannot be made thus was reached. Initially, leaders were considered to be the persons who were successful in the field of military (Bolden, 2004). For example, the first President of the United States, George Washington, was considered to be an inherent leader. Existing literature on leadership theory further illustrated the common traits of leaders, such as adaptive, receptive, motivated, achievement-orientated, crucial, persistent, self-confident, etc., which distinguish them from subordinates. (Stogdill, 2014; McCall & Lombardo, 2013). Later on the leadership theories turns to lay emphasis on behaviors of extraordinary leaders presented with the aims of exploring methods to educate people become effective leaders (Robbins & Coulter, 2002). In conclusion, we can see a progressive pattern with regard to literature research on leadership. It initiates from concentrating on the characteristics of leaders (i.e. leaders cannot be made), then pays more attention to leaders’ behaviors (i.e. people can be trained to become effective leaders) and afterwards emphasizes the contextualized nature of the leadership (Zareen et al., 2015). Over the last two decades, researchers have paid immense attention to the notion of leadership. The leadership theory such as “charismatic” (Conger & Kanungo, 2008; Shamir, House, & Arthur, 2003), “situational” (Graeff, 2017; Grint, 2011), or “transformational” (Avolio, Bass, & Jung, 2009; Bass, 2015), has appeared. Among these, most scholars’ attention is directed to the three types of leadership. First, transactional leadership focus on the exchanges that happen between leaders and subordinates (Burns, 2008; Bass, 2009). Second, transformational leaders stimulate subordinates to achieve higher order needs such as self-esteem in terms of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, and motivate followers to reach organizational goals over personal goals (Bass, 2005, 2015). Third, charismatic leadership (Conger & Kanungo, 1998) elaborates why subordinates identify with their respective leader. The three major leadership styles, i.e. transformational, Charismatics and transactional leadership, have offered a paradigm for leadership research since 1990 (Wu, 2010). The development of any nation is engendered by the effectiveness of its various institutions. An institution or society for the advancement of literature, art, or science is called an academy (The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 2000). The term academia is used to describe institutions of higher learning. Universities are institutions at the highest level of education where students study for a degree or conduct research (Oxford advanced learner dictionary, 2011). Adegbesan (2011) described education as the bedrock of every society and a tool for nation building. Although the importance of quality education in nation building cannot be over emphasized, it is dependent on effective administration and leadership style in the educational institutions. Saal & Knight (2008) viewed leadership as social influence in organizational setting, the effects of which are relevant to, or have an impact upon the achievement of organizational goals. Leadership is all about unleashing human potentials, optimizing performance and the achievement of set goals. Udegbe (2009) defined leadership as a process of creating subordinates‟ identification with the group mission and creating their desire to achieve the group‟s goals. Leadership involves the enhancement of a person‟s vision, performance, and potentials beyond its normal limitations. The weakest and dullest set of people can be transformed into the most efficient workforce through effective leadership. Leadership is a function ingrained in management. These two concepts are closely related especially within organizational setting. Leadership is a characteristic of management that is not exhibited by all managers. Drucker (2007) defined management as the specific practice that converts a mob into an effective, purposeful and productive group. The extent to which a manager can influence group members to behave in desired manner and express commitment to group goals is a reflection of his leadership characteristics. According to Mintzberg (1980), leadership is one of the roles of a manager which is not necessarily carried out by all managers on a daily basis. Managers perform leadership roles as part of their daily routine depending on the functions of their units and whether they are lower, middle or upper level managers. Middlehurst (1995) opined that leadership is the domain of those in certain positions of power in the academia such as Vice-chancellors, Deans, Professors, Heads of Department and Heads of Functional as such as Registry. Management of university education can be looked at from two dimensions: the external and the internal levels. At the external level, the federal government control the university system through the National Universities Commission (NUC), a body charged with the coordination of university management in the country. At the internal level, the Governing Council which is chaired by the Pro-Chancellor is the apex of the management structure within each university. The management of the Nigerian academia will only be as effective as the leadership style adopted. It is expedient at this juncture to explore the different leadership styles. Traditionally, leaders can be autocratic, democratic, Laissez-faire, bureaucratic etc. Researchers have identified various leadership styles in the past. However, the five contemporary leadership styles in organizations include charismatic, transformational, visionary, transactional, and servant leadership styles.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Research has shown that a leadership which subscribes to accountability in the management of public resources is fundamental to development in any nation, and Nigeria is no exception. Consequently, the main argument in this study is that underdevelopment in Nigeria is a function of poor leadership at various levels of government (federal, state and local) that fails to subscribe to proper accountability in the management of public resources. The study seeks to encourage policy makers in Nigeria and other African countries to initiate strategies to overcome the challenges of development by focusing on effective leadership and proper accountability in the management of public resources.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to examine the need for charismatic and effective leadership for the development of Nigeria, the specific objectives are;
- i) To examine the effect of charismatic leadership on the development of Nigeria
- ii) To ascertain the impact of charismatic leadership on the economic development of Nigeria
iii) To ascertain if there is any significant relationship between charismatic, effective leadership and national development
- iv) To proffer suggested solution to the identified problem
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
The following research questions were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study;
- i) Does charismatic leadership have any effect on the development of Nigeria?
- ii) Is there any impact of charismatic leadership on the economic development of Nigeria?
iii) Is there any significant relationship between charismatic, effective leadership and national development?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study;
H0: There is no significant relationship between charismatic, effective leadership and national development
H1: There is a significant relationship between charismatic, effective leadership and national development
H0: Charismatic leadership does not have any impact on the economic development of Nigeria
H2: Charismatic leadership does have an impact on the economic development of Nigeria
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to the political class and public office holders as the study seek to explore the importance of effective and charismatic leadership on national development, the study will also be of great importance to the managers of government business enterprise as the study seek to explore the importance of charismatic leadership to organizational and national development in Nigeria. The study will also be of importance ro researchers who intend to embark on a study in a similar topic as the study will serve as a pathfinder to further study. Finally, the study will be of great importance to students, teachers, academia’s and the general public as the study will contribute to the pool of existing literature on the subject matter and also contribute to knowledge.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the need for charismatic and effective leadership for the development of Nigeria, but in the cause of the study, there are some factors that limit the scope of the study;
AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
FINANCE: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
A need is something that is necessary for an organism to live a healthy life. Needs are distinguished from wants. In the case of a need, a deficiency causes a clear adverse outcome.
Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to “lead” or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations
Charismatic leadership is basically the method of encouraging particular behaviors in others by way of eloquent communication, persuasion and force of personality. Charismatic leaders motivate followers to get things done or improve the way certain things are done.
Economic development is the process by which the economic well-being and quality of life of a nation, region or local community are improved.
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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