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THE OPINIONS OF PRINCIPALS AND TEACHERS ON THE IMPACT OF CONDITIONS OF SERVICE ON THE JOB PERFORMANCE AND RETENTION OF TEACHING AND NON-TEACHING STAFF IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

 

This research work investigated the opinions of principals and teachers on the impact of conditions of service on the job performance and retention of teaching and non-teaching staff in secondary schools in Lagos State. The research was aimed at seeking the opinions of principals and teachers as well as the officers of Ministry of Education. The Objectives of the study was to determine the opinions of principals and teachers on the impact of salaries and other allowances, promotion, fringe benefits, staff development, staff welfare services and retirement benefits on the job performance and retention of teaching and non teaching staff. A total population of 9,936, which comprised of all teaching and non-teaching staff under study were considered. A total of 222 questionnaires were distributed to the targeted staff with only one hundred and eighty (180) respondents. The sampled size were randomly selected by a simple random sampling technique and multi- stage cluster sampling technique. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The data used for the study were obtained by the use of questionnaire developed by the researcher and validated by experts in Educational Administration and Planning of Ahmadu Bello University. The questionnaire was subjected to a pilot study conducted in some senior secondary schools in Epe Local Government Area of Lagos State and reliability coefficient was 0.94. Six research questions on what are the opinions of principals and teachers on the impact of salaries and other allowances, promotion, on the job performance and retention of teaching and non teaching staff in secondary schools in Lagos State were answered while Six null hypotheses formulated stated that there is no significant difference in the opinions of principals and teachers on the impact of salaries and other allowances, promotion, on the job performance of teaching and non teaching staff in secondary schools in Lagos State were tested using Chi Square Statistical Analysis. Findings indicated that all the Six Null hypotheses formulated were rejected, that shows that there was significant positive impact of prompt payment of salary, regular promotion, fringe benefits, regular staff development, adequate welfare services and access to retirement benefits on teaching and non teaching staff job performance and retention. Conclusions were made and recommendations were proffered such as paying teachers salary promptly, ensuring regular promotion as at when due, staff need to be sensitized and educated with regard to the purpose and use of pension benefits. A policy could be implemented to allow teachers to borrow a certain percentage from their pension to ease their financial burden. Finally, suggestions were proffered for further studies such as similar studies be conducted on the opinions of primary schools teachers in Lagos State.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Page

 

Cover Page…………………………………………………………………………………………… Error! Bookmark not defined.

 

Title Page……………………………………………………………………………………………… Error! Bookmark not defined.

 

Declaration……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ii

 

Certification…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. iii

 

Dedication……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. iv

 

Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………………………………………………. v

 

Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… vi

 

Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. vii

 

List of Tables……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. xi

 

Abbreviations…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. xiii

 

Operational Definition of Terms……………………………………………………………………………….. xiv

 

CHAPTER ONE : INTRODUCTION

 

1.1       Background to the Study…………………………………………………………………………………. 1

 

1.2       Statement of the Problem…………………………………………………………………………………. 6

 

1.3       Objectives of the Study……………………………………………………………………………………. 8

 

1.4       Research Questions………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8

 

1.5       Research Hypotheses……………………………………………………………………………………….. 9

 

1.6       Basic Assumptions…………………………………………………………………………………………. 10

 

1.7       Significance of the Study……………………………………………………………………………….. 11

 

1.8       Scope of the study…………………………………………………………………………………………. 11

 

CHAPTER TWO : REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

 

2.1       Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13

 

2.2       Concept of Conditions of Service……………………………………………………………………. 14

 

2.2.1    Job Performance……………………………………………………………………………………………. 14

 

2.2.2    Retention……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16

 

2.2.3    Teacher Retention Strategies…………………………………………………………………………… 17

 

2.2.4    Retention Strategies in Lagos State Civil Service………………………………………………. 18

 

2.2.5    Secondary Education and Its Objectives………………………………………………………….. 19

 

2.3       Theoretical Framework…………………………………………………………………………………… 20

 

2.3.1    Abraham Maslow‘s Hierarchy of Need Theory………………………………………………….. 21

 

vii

 

2.4       Impact  of  Salaries  and   other  Allowances  on  the  Job  Performances     and

 

Retention of Teaching and Non- Teaching Staff in Secondary Schools………………… 23

 

2.5       Impact of Promotion on the Job Performances and Retention of Teaching and

 

Non-Teaching Staff in Secondary Schools……………………………………………………….. 24

 

2.6       Impact of Fringe Benefit on the Job Performances and Retention of Teaching

 

and Non-Teaching Staff in Secondary Schools…………………………………………………. 27

 

2.7       Impact  of  Welfare  Services  on  the  Job  Performances      and  Retention  of

 

Teaching and Non-Teaching Staff in Secondary Schools……………………………………. 30

 

2.8       Impact  of  Staff  Development  on  the  Job  performances  and  Retention  of

 

Teaching and Non-Teaching Staff in Secondary Schools……………………………………. 31

 

2.8.1    Types of Staff Development (Training)…………………………………………………………….. 34

 

2.9       Impact of Retirement Benefits on the Job Performances and Retention of

 

Teaching and Non-Teaching Staff in Secondary Schools……………………………………. 38

 

2.9.1    Prompt Payment of Retirement Benefits…………………………………………………………… 39

 

2.9.2    The New Pension Reform Act of 2004…………………………………………………………….. 41

 

2.10     Empirical Studies…………………………………………………………………………………………… 43

 

2.11     Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 46

 

 

CHAPTER THREE : RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

 

3.0       Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 473.1       Research design. 47

 

3.2       Population of the study………………………………………………………………………………….. 48

 

3.3       Sample and Sampling Techniques……………………………………………………………………. 49

 

3.4       Instrumentation……………………………………………………………………………………………… 52

 

3.5       Validity of the instrument………………………………………………………………………………. 52

 

3.6       Pilot Study……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 53

 

3.7       Reliability of the instrument……………………………………………………………………………. 53

 

3.8       Procedure for Data Collection…………………………………………………………………………. 54

 

3.9       Method of Data Analysis……………………………………………………………………………….. 54

 

CHAPTER       FOUR       :        PRESENTATION,      INTERPRETATION       AND

 

DISCUSSION OF DATA

 

4.1       Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 55

 

4.2       Demographic Characteristics of Respondents……………………………………………………. 55

 

viii

 

4.3       Interpretation and Presentation of Tables………………………………………………………….. 58

 

4.3.1    Opinions of Respondents on the Impact of Salaries and other Allowances on

 

Job  Performances  and  Retention  of  Teaching  and  Non-Teaching  staff  in

 

Secondary Schools in Lagos State…………………………………………………………………… 58

 

4.3.2    Opinions    of   Respondents   on   the   Impact   of   Promotion    on   the   Job

 

Performances   and   Retention   of   Teaching    and   Non-Teaching    staff   in

 

Secondary Schools in Lagos State…………………………………………………………………… 62

 

4.3.3    Opinions   of   Respondents   on   the   Impact   of   Fringe    Benefits   on   Job

 

Performances   and   Retention   of   Teaching    and   Non-Teaching    Staff   in

 

Secondary Schools in Lagos State…………………………………………………………………… 64

 

4.3.4    Opinions of Respondents on the Impact of Staff Development on the Job

 

Performance  and Retention of Teaching and Non-teaching Staff in Secondary

 

Schools in Lagos State…………………………………………………………………………………… 67

 

4.3.5    Opinions  of  Respondents  on  the  Impact  of  Welfare  Services  on  the  Job

 

Performances   and   Retention   of   Teaching    and   Non-Teaching    staff   in

 

Secondary Schools in Lagos State…………………………………………………………………… 71

 

4.3.6    Opinions  of  Respondents  on  the  Impact  of  Retirement  Benefits  on  Job

 

Performances   and   Retention   of   Teaching    and   Non-Teaching    Staff   in

 

Secondary Schools in Lagos State…………………………………………………………………… 73

 

4.4       Hypotheses Testing………………………………………………………………………………………… 76

 

4.4.1    Hypothesis One…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 77

 

4.4.2    Hypothesis Two…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 78

 

4.4.3    Hypothesis Three…………………………………………………………………………………………… 79

 

4.4.4    Hypothesis Four…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 80

 

4.4.5    Hypothesis Five…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 81

 

4.4.6    Hypothesis Six………………………………………………………………………………………………. 81

 

4.5       Summary of Hypotheses Testing……………………………………………………………………… 82

 

4.6       Summary of Major Findings……………………………………………………………………………. 84

 

4.7       Discussion of the Findings……………………………………………………………………………… 84

 

CHAPTER FIVE : SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS

 

5.1       Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 89

 

5.2       Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 89

 

5.3       Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90

 

ix

 

5.4       Recommendations…………………………………………………………………………………………. 91

 

5.5       Suggestions for Further Studies………………………………………………………………………. 92

 

References…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 94

 

Appendices………………………………………………………………………………………………… 101

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1         Background to the Study

 

Education is the bed-rock of any nation‘s defense. Education is that process that helps to develop the whole man physically, mentally, socially and technologically to enable him to function effectively in any environment in which he may find himself. (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2009). Ogundele, (2000) observed that no nation rises above the level of its education and no educational system outgrows the quality and status of its teachers. Nakpodia, (2006) observed that in any educational arrangement, the success lies in the commitment of the teachers. Therefore, the relevance of job satisfaction and motivation are very crucial to the long-time growth of any educational system around the world. Teachers are expected to render a very high job performance. And the Ministry of Education is always curious regarding the job performance of its teachers. Also, the Ministry of Education demands a very high measure of loyalty, patriotism, dedication, hard- work and commitment from its teachers. (Ubom & Joshua, 2004). Unsatisfactory working condition and conditions of service which are the major contributory factors that are militating against the enhancement of teachers‘ effectiveness in their performance of duties. Factors such as inadequate fringe benefits, delay in the payment of retirement benefits, irregular staff promotion or non promotion at all, denial of rights of workers, delayed and unpaid salaries and allowances resulting in incessant industrial disputes and strikes, lockouts and academic dislocation. These issues must have contributed to the mass exodus of secondary school teaching staff into more viable organizations Some leave either

 

for politic or what they called a more lucrative job where conditions of service is 1

 

 

more favorable in comparison with teaching and research work. The researcher is therefore, focusing her research work on the opinions of principals and teachers on the impact of conditions of service on the job performances and retention of teaching and non-teaching staff in secondary schools in Lagos state.

 

Among the numerous problems confronting tertiary institutions in Nigeria is the perceived poor job performance of some academic staff which some claim could be due to poor conditions of service. In recent years, stakeholders in the education sector complained about the job performance of academic staff in the Nigerian tertiary institutions. It has often been expressed by the public that the academic staff are no longer dedicated and committed to the job. It appears that the academic staff who are trained and expected to produce a host of cherished societal virtues such as honesty, humility, fairness, integrity, punctuality, dedication and patriotism are not dedicated and committed to their job and this is indeed not unconnected to their condition of service which is not attractive as other sector of the nation economy. There had been a common belief among scholars, researchers, educational planners and administrators that teaching as a profession deserves due and wholesome attention (Wilson & Rosenfield, 2003). It seems that no concrete efforts have been made to actualize this free opinion in our secondary institutions. Teaching and non-teaching staff in our secondary institutions seems not to be enjoying some of the good conditions of service that could bring about high productivity on their part such as health insurance scheme, study leave, training and retraining, regular promotion, retirement benefit, proper pension arrangement, staff training remunerations, responsibility allowances, maternity leave etc.

 

2

 

 

Increasingly, organizations are realizing that they have to establish an equitable balance between the employee‘s contribution to the organization and the organization contribution on the employee. Establishing this balance is one of the main reasons to reward and recognize employees. Studies that have been conducted on the topic indicates that the most common problem in organization today is that they miss the important component of recognition, which is the low-cost, high-return ingredient to a well-balanced reward system. A key focus of recognition is to make employee feel appreciated. Good condition of service is fundamental to the success and survival of any organization or institution. Hence, it occupies a central role in education and organizational discourse. This is because the relationship between man and his work has always attracted the attention of renowned philosophers, sociologist, and educationist. A major part of man‘s life is spent at work. It not only provides status to the individual but also binds him to the society (Gautam, Van Dick, Wagner, Upadhyay, & Davis, 2005). An employee who is satisfied with the conditions of service would perform his duties well and be committed to his job, and subsequently to his organization or institution for greater performance. Therefore, the way people are treated increasingly determines whether an organization will prosper or even survive (Lawler, 2003). It should however be noted that the success of any educational system whether private or public to a large extent is dependent on the adequacy and commitment of its teaching staff.

1.2         Statement of the Problem

 

Lagos State has taken Education as a matter of priority in its yearly budgetary statement. In order to retain its personnel for performance, Lagos State Civil Service put in place various strategies in form of incentives these include: training, career development, staff welfare services through free staff transportation services among other things. In spite of government priority measures, researchers have identified among other problems affecting teachers in the state which include, delay in payment of salaries and other allowances, delay and irregularities in promotion of teaching and non-teaching staff. Also, factors such as inadequate fringe benefits, welfare services not taking care of, and teachers not given the opportunity for further development through in-service programmes and workshops, delay in the payment of retirement benefits, thereby, resulting in strikes.

 

6

 

 

The specific problem militating against the job performance and retention of teaching and non- teaching staff due to poor conditions of service are:

 

  1. mass exodus of teaching and non-teaching staff from the education sector into other sectors like the banking sector.

 

  1. most qualified teachers are quitting teaching profession and giving room for unqualified ones.

 

  1. absenteeism

 

  1. most teachers engage in other businesses as means of getting their daily bread instead of relying on teaching.

 

  1. most teachers are not given the opportunity to acquire more knowledge through training and re-training.

 

  1. poor sanitary conditions and lack of affordable accommodation for teachers.

 

  1. delay in promotion and employers not contributing to their teachers pension scheme.

 

  1. most teaching and non- teaching staff are not computer literate.

 

The researcher was therefore concerned about  these problems, thereby

 

focusing the research work on the opinions of principals and teachers on the impact of condition of service on the job performance and retention of teaching and non- teaching staff in secondary schools in Lagos State.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

 

1.3         Objectives of the Study

 

Objectives of the study seek to:

 

  1. determine the opinions of principals and teachers on the impact of salaries and other allowances on the job performances and retention of teaching and non-teaching staff in secondary schools in Lagos State.

 

  1. verify the opinions of principals and teachers on the impact of promotion on the job performances and retention of teaching and non-teaching staff in secondary schools in Lagos State.

 

  1. ascertain the opinions of principals and teachers on the impact of fringe benefits on the job performances and retention of teaching and non-teaching staff in secondary schools in Lagos State.

 

  1. examine the opinions of principals and teachers on the impact of staff development on the job performances and retention of teaching and non-teaching staff secondary schools in Lagos State.

 

  1. find out the opinions of principals and teachers on the impact of welfare services on the job performances and retention of teaching and non-teaching staff in secondary schools in Lagos State.

 

  1. identify the opinions of principals and teachers on the impact of retirement benefits on the job performances and retention of teaching and non-teaching staff in secondary schools in Lagos State.

 

 

1.4         Research Questions

 

  1. What are the opinions of principals and teachers on the impact of salaries and other allowances on the job performances and retention of teaching

 

and non- teaching staff in secondary schools in Lagos State?

 

8

 

 

  1. Do the opinions of principals and teachers on promotion have any impact on the job performances and retention of teaching and non-teaching staff in secondary schools in Lagos State?

 

  1. What are the opinions of principals and teachers on the impact of fringe benefit on the job performances and retention of teaching and non-teaching staff in secondary schools in Lagos State?

 

  1. How do the opinions of principals and teachers on staff development have impact on the job performances and retention of teaching and non-teaching staff in secondary schools in Lagos State?

 

  1. What are the opinions of principals and teachers on the impact of welfare services on the job performances and retention of teaching and non-teaching staff in secondary schools in Lagos State?

 

  1. Do the opinions of principals and teachers on retirement benefits have impact on the job performances and retention of teaching and non-teaching staff in secondary schools in Lagos State?

 

 

1.5         Research Hypotheses

 

The following null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance:

 

  1. There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals and teachers on the impact of salaries and other allowances on the job performances and retention of teaching and non-teaching staff in secondary schools in Lagos State.

 

 

 

 

9

 

 

  1. There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals and teachers on the impact of promotion on the job performances and retention of teaching and non-teaching staff in secondary schools in Lagos State.

 

  1. There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals and teachers on the impact of fringe benefits on the job performances and retention of teaching and non-teaching staff in secondary schools in Lagos State.

 

  1. There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals and teachers on the impact of staff development on the job performances and retention of teaching and non-teaching staff in secondary schools in Lagos State.

 

  1. There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals and teachers on the impact of welfare services on the job performances and retention of teaching and non-teaching of staff in secondary schools in Lagos State.

 

  1. There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals and teachers on the impact of retirement benefits on the job performances and retention of teaching and non-teaching staff in secondary schools in Lagos State.

 

 

1.6         Basic Assumptions

 

This study is based on the assumptions that:

 

  1. Salaries and other allowances influence job performances and retention.

 

  1. Promotion have positive impact on the job performances and retention of teaching and non teaching staff in Lagos state.

 

  1. Job performance of teaching and non teaching staff in Lagos state will improve if fringe benefits are paid.

 

  1. Staff development can influence the performance and retention of teaching

 

and non teaching staff in Lagos state.

 

10

 

 

  1. Welfare services influence the job performances and retention of teaching and non teaching staff in Lagos state.

 

  1. Retirement benefits do not have any significant impact on the job performances and retention of teaching and non teaching staff in secondary schools in Lagos state.

 

 

1.7         Significance of the Study

 

The study would be of immense benefit to the Lagos State government, and as well as stake-holders in education sector in that, it clearly shows the areas of weaknesses that may require additional efforts on teachers‘ salaries and allowances, development programmes and welfare services in Lagos State. The study will inform management and policy makers in the field of education in their decision making process and the use of incentives to motivate teachers so as to achieve maximum performance and retention of productive staff. The outcome will also assist Lagos State Government in the development of effective managerial strategies and policies that will improve conditions of service of teaching and non-teaching staff through improved quality working conditions to achieve educational goals and objectives in secondary schools in Lagos state.

 

 

1.8         Scope of the study

 

This study is limited to the opinions of principals and teachers on the impact of conditions of service on the job performances and retention of teaching and non-teaching staff in secondary schools in Lagos State. Therefore, the study is limited to only teachers and principals of senior secondary schools within the six

 

11

 

education districts in Lagos State, as well as officers of Ministry of Education in

 

Lagos State.

 

 

 

 

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