The Physio-Chemical Properties Of Clay Through Laboratory Analysis
| Format: Ms Word | 1-5 Chapters | Table of Content|
INSTANT PROJECT MATERIAL DOWNLOAD
Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE
Clay is a generic term for a variety of fine-grained earthly materials that become plastic and tenacious when wet and harden permanently when baked or fired. (Velde, 1995) defines clay as a material with a particle size of less than 2 micrometers and a family of minerals with similar chemical composition and crystal structural characteristics.
Clay is formed as a result of the chemical weathering of pre-existing granitic rock and feldspar minerals, particularly in warm tropical and subtropical regions of the world, or as a result of granitic rock hydrothermal alteration. Clays are hydrous aluminum silicates that typically contain impurities such as potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, or iron in trace amounts and are distinguished by
Sheet silicate structures with stacked composite layers along the c-axis (Grim 1968).
Clay has a variety of physical properties, including plasticity, shrinkage during firing and drying, fineness of grain, color after drying, hardness, cohesion, and the ability of the surface to accept decoration.
Clay and clay minerals have been mined since the Stone Age and are vital in architecture, industry, and agriculture.
1.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. Using laboratory analysis, investigate the physio-chemical properties of clay.
2. To gain an understanding of clay mineralogy through laboratory analysis.
3. To look into their potential industrial applications.
1.2 LOCATION OF STUDY AREA
The study area is defined as latitude 50 11 54.311 (5.03180) north of the equator and longitude 60 241 1.211 (6.40030) east of the Greenwich meridian. The study area is in Yenegoa local government area of Bayelsa state in Nigeria’s Niger Delta.
1.3 ACCESSIBILITY OF THE STUDY AREA
Igbogene is located between Akiogbologbo and Yenegoa, as well as close to Yenegwe. The study area is 4 kilometers south-east of Yenegwe Akiobologbo, 5 kilometers west of Yenegoa, and 5 kilometers southwest of Akenfa. 5 kilometers east of Odieke, 5 kilometers east of Agbo, and 6 kilometers northwest of Agbia.
1.4 CLIMATE OF THE STUDY AREA
Igbogene has a tropical climate. The area, like the rest of Nigeria, has two seasons: the wet season (rainy season), which lasts from March to October, and the dry season, which lasts from November to early March. The average annual temperature is 26.70 degrees Celsius, and the average rainfall is 2899 millimeters.
1.5 VEGETATION OF THE STUDY AREA
To the south of Nigeria, Igbogene is surrounded by a tropical rain forest. The prolonged period of rainfall ensures an adequate supply of water, flooding, and the continuous presence of moisture in the air and soil, which promotes the growth of all green plants and trees even during the dry season. Cassava, vegetable sugarcane, water yam, and other plants can be found in the area, as can grasses that grow in open pastures. The vegetation pattern provides information about soil formation.
READ ALSO: EFFECT OF SODIUM SULPHATE CONTAMINATION ON ENGINEERING PROPERTIES
1.6 RELIEF AND DRAINAGE
The study area is mostly lowland plain near sea level. The land surface slopes gently from north to south.
The study area is drained by a major river (nun) and creeks, the source of which is the river Niger, which flows from north-west to south-east.
1.7 GEOMORPHOLOGY AND GEOMORPHIC UNITS
The geomorphology of the Niger delta is primarily based on the works of Allen (1946 and 1965) Reyment (1965).
The Niger delta has a flat topography that slopes very slightly towards the coast. The terrain is flat, with an elevation of more than 35 meters above sea level.
Akpokodje (2001) identified five geomorphic units in the Niger Delta:
1. Plains and dry flat land
2. Swamps of fresh water
3. Alluvial swamps and meander bets
4. Active abandoned coastal ridges and salt water or mangrove swamps
5. The Sombreiro-Wari Deffaic Plain, which has an abundance of fresh water beach swamps.
USE THIS MATERIALS AS A GUIDE FOR YOUR PERSONAL RESEARCH WORK (IF PROPERLY CITED)
PAY ₦3,000 HERE TO DOWNLOAD MATERIALS
Account Number: 0709546102
Access Bank: Savings
Account Name: Emmanuel Idorenyin Samuel.