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THE PROBLEM OF CHILD LABOUR AND EXPLOITATION IN NIGERIA(A CASE STUDY OF ODIGBO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN ONDO STATE)

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| Format: Ms Word | 1-5 Chapters | Table of Content|

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ABSTRACT

This work examined the problem of child labour and exploitation in Nigeria, a Case Study of Odigbo Local Government Area in Ondo State. The Objective of the study is to determine if child labour depends on the socio – economic status of parents/ guardians, to compare the relationship in academic performance between children engaged in child labour and those who do not. The research question of the study is to determine if child labour depends on the socio – economic status of parents/ guardians. The research design is descriptive research design method. Population of the Lokoja Local Government Area covering in the 2006 census, Odigbo Local Government Area has a population of about 360,260. The questionnaire distributed to Odigbo Local Government Area is 400 copies. From the findings, It was clear that child labour depends on the socio-economic status of parents/ guardians. It revealed that the relationship in academic performance between children engaged in child labour and those who do not. Therefore, it was recommended that Government should channel resources to people-oriented programmes such as poverty eradication, small and medium -scale loans scheme, subsidy on petroleum and agricultural products, as well as free, qualitative but compulsory education at all levels. There should be binding legislation against child labour. This will help to check mate any perpetrator. Such persons must be apprehended for effective process

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background  to the Study     

The issue of child labour has attracted increasing attention in the past decade from policy makers, advocates and researchers. The incidence of child labour may have decreased globally from 25% to 10% between 1960 and 2003 yet, the total number of child labourers remains high (Norberg, 2017). Child labour is a persistent problem, found throughout most of the developing world, and to a lesser extent in developed countries. The availability of detailed and reliable child labour statistics and their analysis on a continuing basis are particularly important for establishing policy priorities and targets, formulating and implementing interventions, and monitoring policies, regulations and programs aimed not only at the minimization of the negative consequences of child labour in the short term, but most importantly at the eventual elimination of the practice Child labour and low school attendance is a pervasive problem throughout the world, especially in Nigeria (Anthony  N  Nwazuoke, 2016).

Africa and Asia together account for over 90 percent of total child employment. This is especially prevalent in rural areas where the capacity to enforce minimum age requirements for schooling and work is lacking. Children work for a variety of reasons, the most important being exploitation and the induced pressure upon them to escape from this plight. Though children are not well paid, they still serve as major contributors to family income in developing countries. Schooling problems also contribute to child labour, whether it is the inaccessibility of schools or the lack of quality education which spurs parents to enter their children in more profitable pursuits (Anugwom, 2016). Traditional factors such as rigid cultural and social roles in certain countries further limit educational attainment and increase child labour. The gender roles that a society assigns to its children will have a determining effect on their future: their access to food and education; their labour force participation; their status in relationships; and their physical and psychological health. According to the report from the Bureau of Statistics of the International Labour Organization (2016) at least 120 million of the world’s children between the ages of 5 and 14 years did full-time, paid work (ILO, 2017; Amagiya, F. 2012). Many of them worked under hazardous and unhygienic conditions and for more than 10 hours a day.

The rate of child labour and exploitation in Nigeria today has assumed a worrisome and alarming proportion (Bukar and Babajidda, 2016) attracting the attention of the federal government in its establishment of the National Agency for the Prohibition of Traffic in Persons (NAPTIP) in 2003. Child abuse has degenerated into a form of slave trade. According to Ariyo (2001), the phenomenon of child trafficking for forced labour or compulsory labour is growing so fast that most countries in Africa fit into one of the categories as sender, transit, or receiving countries. Child Labor exists also in the form of house-helps or domestic servants. In this case, privileged people from the cities easily convince poor rural parents to hand in their children to them with various promises of better life and education. However, these children are sooner than later turned into house helps who cook food, wash clothes, care for babies, fetch water and attend to all sorts of household chores etc. “Children in domestic service in Nigeria can be in several forms (Okafor, 2018; p.12). There is therefore an urgent need to pay more attention to the early years of children’s lives. Against this background, this paper critically examined child labour and exploitation in Nigeria and spelt out the implication both now and in the future.   

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  1. Statement of the Problem   
  2. Evidences are enormous that children who are involved in child labour are generally at risk for a variety developmental and psychological outcome due to excessive exposure to hazard. They also function poorly intellectually (UNICEF, 2018).
  3. How does child labour as an aspect of child abuse reflect on the academic performance of students who engage in Ondo State.
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  1. Objectives of the Study

            The objectives of the study include the following:

  1. To determine if child labour depends on the socio-economic status of parents/guardians.
  2. To compare the relationship in academic performance between children engaged in child labour and those who do not.
  3. To determine the child labour emanate as a result of unemployment among parents in Ondo State
  4. To examine the relationship between child labour and poor academic performance of children in Ondo State.
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  1. Significance of the Study

The present study is considered significant, as it will provide information on the incidence and level of involvement among secondary school students in child labour in the central senatorial district of Ondo State, as well as some factors/ which help to influence this practice. It would further reveal how child labour affect or influence the academic performance of secondary school students.

Information on the incidence will sensitize the family/guardians and relevant policy-makers to the magnitude of child labour as an aspect of child abuse and neglect in the area of study.

Furthermore, the study would review the pattern of relationship between child labour, and the academic performance of secondary school students. If it is found out that child labour has adverse effects on the academic performance of secondary school students, parents may be told sufficiently to withdraw children from such activities. This same information will sensitize the government to formulate laws to curb the excesses of child labour and make it compulsory for parents/guardians to send their children/wards to school.                

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  1. Research Questions

The study shall answer the following questions:

  1.  Determine if child labour depends on the socio-economic status of parents/guardians.
  2. Compare the relationship in academic performance between children engaged in child labour and those who do not.
  3. Does child labour emanate as a result of unemployment among parents in Ondo State?
  4.  Is there any relationship between child labour and poor academic performance of children in Ondo State?
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  1. Scope and Limitations of the Study

This study which examines the problem of child labour and exploitation in Nigeria is limited to Odigbo Local Government as a case study.

 In the course of the study, the researchers experienced some constraints which no doubt affected their efforts in making the project a piece of work. The numerous problems that cropped up in the course of study are highlighted.

            Firstly, the major constraints was lack or reference of relevant books. Most local government books were not readily available even in the state library. Most local government books did not treat the aspect of child labour theory of administration satisfactorily to be able to deduct relevant information. This made us to under take journey to nearby states to obtain relevant information.

            In the process of information collection through interview methods some staff were a bit reluctant to supply relevant and suitable information.

 In some aspects staff will say “No” or “I can say”. In such instance it makes collection of vital information difficult. Some staff will make the interview difficult by not been available. There was apathy in the collection of some vital information.  

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  1. Definition of key Terms

Affect: to have an influence on someone or something, or to cause a change in someone 

Child: a young human being below the age of puberty

Economics is a social science concerned with the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

Eradication: to get rid of something completely or destroy something bad

Exploitation : the action or fact of treating someone unfairly in order to benefit from their work, the action of making use of and benefiting from work 

Government:  the group of people who officially control a country

Impeding: to make it more difficult for something to happen or more difficult for someone to do something: 

Intervention: action taken to intentionally become involved in a difficult situation in order to improve it

Labour: the process of delivering a baby and the placenta, membranes, and umbilical cord from the uterus to the vagina to the outside world.

Reasons: to have the ability to think in an intelligent way, make sensible decisions, and form clear arguments.

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