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The main purpose of this study is to examine critically the problems of debt management in Nigerian financial institutions with particular references to First Bank Plc Garden Avenue Enugu. To achieve the objective of this research study, a questionnaire was designed and administered to the selected banks, using random sampling technique, supplemented by oral interviews, necessitated by the return of these questionnaires. The research revealed how debt management in financial institutions has impede the development of banks in Nigeria. The research also revealed the measures that will be adopted to check the problems of debt management in Nigerian financial institutions. It was concluded that efficient management of debts in our nation’s financial institution will help in both economic growth and economic development of a nation. The researcher also recommended that banks should eliminate credit-risk asset and there must be a governing policy by the banks whereby large loans made to an individual or corporate bodies are covered by a reputable insurance company.
Financial institutions is that sector of the economy providing the community with money balances and payment of bank and sector of the economy is made, up of banks and non-banks financial institutions like financial house, mortgage house and other institutions that provide financial services and intermediation to the various segment of the economy. In modern society, economic prosperity and progress depend largely on level of savings in the nation. According to Azeredo (2002) in his journal said financial institutions those organization, that are involved in providing various types of financial services to their customers. The financial institutions are controlled and supervised by the rules and regulations delineated by government authorities. Some of the financial institutions also function as mediators in share market and debt security market. The principal function of the financial institutions is to collect funds from the investors and direct the funds to various financial services providers in search for the funds. According to Thompson (2005. 12). in his book financial institution also impact a wide range of educational programmes to educate their investors on the funds amounts of investment also regarding the valuation of stock, bonds, assets, foreign exchanges and commodities. It happens that some on savings is made available to investors for productive venture like what happened in commercial banks, where this happens a debt is credited. A debt which has been described as an obligation to make future payment it is against the borrowing promises to made future payment. As a result of this the owners of these funds faces the risk of not getting their money in good time, or loosing it entirely the custodian the custodian of the fund managed then well hence debt management become a singanon to guarantee the confidence of the individual depositor the his money is safe. Debt management involves put in place for repayment of those credit fertilities. In the same vein it is fulfill a wider role in save guiding the stability of the individual banks and the banking system as a whole. At this, the researcher will mention that this work is based on the constraint in relation with debt tagged the problem of management in Nigeria. Financial institution (A case study of garden avenue Enugu) recently the bank sector undergo a thematic experience whereby some banks, were judged distressed, thus, however was a direct manifestation of improper debt management. According to B.C. Onyiwa (2006) said that financial institution deals with various financial activities associated with bonds, debentures, stock, loans, risk diversification, insurance, hedging retirement planning, investment, portfolio management and other types of related functions. With the help of their function, the financial institutions transfer money or funds to various tiers of economy and this play a significant role in acting upon the domestic and international economic scenario. It happens that some one’s savings is made available to an investor for productive venture like what happens in commercial banks. When this happens a debt is created. A debt which has been described as an obligation to made future payment. It is against the borrowers promise to made future payment. As a result of this the owners of these funds faces the risk of not getting their money in good time or losses it entirely when the custodian of these funds cannot mange then well hence debt management becomes a sing anon to guarantee the confidence of the individual depositor that his money is safe-debt management involves arrangement put in place for repayment of these credit facilities. In the same vain it also fulfill a wider role in safe guiding the stability of the individual bank and thus the banking system as a whole. At this juncture ,the researcher will mention that this work is based on the constrains in relation with debt tagged the problems of management in Nigeria financial institution (A case study of first bank Plc Garden Avenue Enugu). Recently, the banking sector undergo a traumatic experience whereby some banks were judged distressed, this however was a direct manifestation of improper debt management.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
The fundamental role banks and non-banks financial institutions is to intermediate between the surplus deficits sector of the economy. Ensuring that inventible that will generate new valves at make the economy grows. In performing this role, banks are exposed to credits risks, for instance, the possibility that the borrower will not repay the credit granted, when it falls due, or even fail out right to repay, paragraph when this possibility because a reality a bank is said to be set with problems of debt management are:
1. Recession and low investment, because a lot of Nigerians do not keep their money in the bank for a very long time.
2. Funds raised in respect of loan or guarantee financed from the resources any special funds.
3. Retaining customer with new services
4. Eases of fraud, theft in financial institutions.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of this research work is to determine the problem the problem of debt management in Nigerian financial institutions and also to:
1. Determine the commonest causes of failure of financial institutions in Nigeria.
2. Examine measures that will be adopted to check the problems of debt management in Nigerian financial institutions.
3. Determine how debt management in financial institutions has impede the development of banks in Nigeria.
4. Determine why most financial institutions fail as a result of debt management.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the commonest cause of financial institution failures
2. What measure do the bank adopt to check problems of debt management in financial institutions.
3. To what extent can the customers wait before granting he or her loan in the financial institutions.
4. To what extent has the problem of debt management contributed to the failure of financial in Nigeria?