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| Format: Ms Word | 1-5 Chapters | Table of Content|


Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE

Amount: ₦3,000.00

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This research relates to a candle composition containing non-hydrogenated oil and at least one of long chain hydrocarbon and long-chain hydrocarbon derivatives. A candle composition having non-hydrogenated oil and a solidifying amount of congealing reagent. A candle composition having paraffin, non-hydrogenated oil, and a solidifying amount of a congealing reagent comprising petroleum, oxidized petrolatum oxidized long-chain hydrocarbons, or modified hydrocarbons. A process for making a candle composition is also provided, the process comprising mixing together a non hydrogenated oil and a congealing amount of a congealing reagent, heating mixture to a temperature of 75-900C, preferably 75-800C, the cooling the mixture and pouring into a container.

The study also carried out the standard procedure that results in the production of candle from the composition of candle. This article gives an overview and description of the raw materials and additives that are used for the manufacturing of candle and explains t he combustion process in the candle flames. Starting with the definition and classification of candles the criteria are presented which are crucial for the safe handling of candles i.e. ensuring they are harmless in relation to both people and the environment. The structure and content of a proposed European quality standard for candle are derived from these criteria.


Chapter One      

1.1       Introduction

1.2       Statement of problem

1.3       Purpose of study

1.4       Hypothesis

1.5       Significance of the study

1.6       Scope of study

1.7       Limitation of study

1.8       Definition of terms

Chapter Two

2.1       Literature Review

2.2       Raw materials and additive for manufacturing candles

2.3       Candle compositions

2.4       Different ways or examples of candle composition produced

Chapter Three

3.1       Experimental procedure

3.2       Materials

3.3       Equipment

3.4       Experimental method

3.5       Testing and Analysis of the candle produced

Chapter Four     

4.1       Data Analysis

Chapter Five

Summary of findings and Conclusions, Suggestions and Recommendation.

5.1       Summary of Findings

5.2       Conclusion

5.3       Suggestions and Recommendation



1.1         INTRODUCTION

One of the most universal articles used as a source of light and for their aesthetic appeal, which can be used to read, work, in households and industries, and used for prayer at alters, shrines and temples is known as candle. Candle is a round stick of wax with a wig through it, which is lit to give light as it burn. Oxford Advanced learner’s dictionary Fourth Edition (1989). There are many types of candles based on the production and the composition formulation from which the candle is made (or the materials you use).

Candles can be manufactured in a small scale or larger scale. The small-scale process can be done either at home or laboratory, following while the large-scale process is produced in industrial and companies the scientific and technical process. The method of making a candle product can be quite interesting if done with the knowledge and adequate skills which a students I a higher institution of learning should be able to accomplish.

Candles have accomplished mankind for more than 2000 years. Besides their liturgical relevance, candles were predominantly used as a source of light and in the early history of the candle are the effects to improve its quality. Beeswax candles had been developed by the Romans to such an extent that by approximately the middle of the second century A. D. they could be burnt in a closed room without sooting annoyingly or excessively beeswax candles showed significant advantages when compared to tallow candles. The latter had a rancid odour and smoked and sooted whilst burning.

It was only as late as the mid nineteenth century that steering and paraffin wax offered further high quality raw materials available for the manufacture of candles alongside beeswax. During the same period decisive improvements were made to wicks, in particular the braiding techniques and chemical treatments. So further prerequisites for candles that burnt well were fulfilled and Geothe’s dream, “I know not what you could invent better than candles that burn without smoking”.

The myth surrounding the candle remains even today, although numerous and various types of light are available to us since the invention of electric light and its introduction into our daily lives. Candlelight is still associated with a festival laid table, a pleasant coffee morning or idyllic romantic hours spent together. Obviously a candle that burns well and does not soot is a must for enjoying such occasions. Sooting and dripping are the decisive quality criteria of the consumer when judging candles.

Further, the environmental awareness of today the candle as a product with an open flame is naturally drawn into discussions concerning the possible negative effects on humans and nature by potentially harmful substances. Traditional crafmanship, training and the passing down of experience all go together to guarantee the production of high quality candles by specialized candle companies.

The Egyptians formed candles that were made out of beeswax as early as 3000 BC. The day candle holders found in Egypt date back to 400 BC. The Chinese created candles from wahle fat during the Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC).

In early china and Japan, tapers were made with wax from insect and seeds, wrapped in paper the word Zhu in Chinese originally meant torch and could have the warring states period (403-221BC), some excavated Bronx wares from that era feature a picket though to hold a candle.

Candles were manufacture in AD-1500 AD, here there is a fish called the evlachonor “candle fish”, a type of smelt which is found from Oregon to Alaska. During the first century AD, indigenous people from this region used oil from this fish for illumination. By the 18thcentury, the Chinese designed weights into the sides of candles, as such a candle melted, the weights fell off and made a noise as they fell into a bowl.

In 1750, spermaceti, oil that comes from sperm whale, was used to provide very expensive candles. By 1800, a much cheaper attentive was discovered. Colza oil, derived from Brassica campestris, and similar oil derived from rapeseed, yielded candles that produce clear smokeless flames. The French chemist Michel Eugene Chevrev (1786-1889) and Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac (1778-1850) patented stearin, in 1811, like tallow, this was derived from animals, but had no glycerin content. The second patent ever granted by the US (United States) in 1790 for a new method of candle making was Joseph Sampson.

In 1834, Joseph Morgan began to industrialize the production of candles. He invented a machine to manufacture 1,500 per hour from a mould.  A chemist called Laurent distile paraffin from schist in 1830. another chemist, Dumes obtained paraffin from coal-tar in 1935. not until 1850 did paraffin became commercially viable when James young filed a patent to produce it from coal. Paraffin could be used to make inexpensive candles of high quality.

The oldest candle manufactures still in existence are Rathbornes Candles, founded in Dulblin in 1488. Excavations at pimply, Italy, discovered several candelabra. Yak butter was used for candles in Tibet in Europe, the earliest surviving candle was discovered near Avigon infrance, from the first century AD. Tallow, fat from cows or sheep became the standard materials used in candles in Europe.

Dating from about 1330, the wax chandlers company acquired its charter in 1484. by 1415, tallow candles were used in street lighting. The unpleasant smell of tallow candles is due to the glycerin they contain. For churches and royal events, candles from beeswax were used as the smell was usually less unpleasant. The smell of the manufacturing process was so unpleasant that it was banned by ordinance in several cities.

In Rome, they used tallow, derived from suet, a crumbly animal fat to make the candles. Although the tallow was extremely smoky, the smoke was forgiven for light and used for prayer.  The first candle mould was believed to come from 15th century in Paris. The first American Colonist discovered that bayberries could be used to make candles, but the yield was very poor. Fiufteen pounds of wax. A simple, candle could be made by putting the dried fish on a forked stick and then lighting it. Candles were made for timekeeping. Anglo-saxon king Alfred the Great (C. 849-899) used a candle clock which burned for 4 hours. There were lines around the side to show the passing of each hour. Later, 24hours candles were invented based on the same concept.

The sung dynasty in china (960-1279) also used candle-clocks. A form of candle-clock was used in coal mining until the twentieth century. Despite advances in candle making, the candle industry was devastated soon after by the distillation of kerosene (an excellent fuel for amps). In Britain, kerosene is known as paraffin oil or paraffin despite having little to do with paraffin wax.

In 1829, William Wilson of prices candles invested in 1000 ores (4km2) of coconut plantation in srilanka. His aim was to make candles from coconut oil. Later he tried palm oil from palm trees. An accidental discovery swept all his ambitions aside when his brother George Wilson distilled the first petroleum oil in 1854.

In 1919, Lever Brothers purchased prices candles and in 1922, a joint owned company called “candle Ltd” was created. By 1991, the last remaining owner of “candle Ltd” was shell oil company, who sold off the candle making part of business from this point, candles became more of a decorative item.

1.2         PURPOSE OF STUDY

The main aim of this research work is to produce high quality candles that can be used at home by family members and to be sold to the public for sales and use purpose. The candle produce should have no unpleasant smell and smoke when used, instead it should have a pleasant odour and scent, clear and smokeless flames when lit, with suiting fragrance effect easily noticed in the surrounding air by inhaling with health benefits.

Candles are produced under laboratory condition and independently in large scale with the masses of the materials adequately ascertained.


The following statements of problems are hereby formulated to assist in this research work of candle production.

1.            What raw materials require to produce high quality, very highly quality candles.

2.            What are the procedures to follow in producing the candle?

3.            How can the candle produced be tested?

4.            How duration is the candle

5.            What are the general requirement for candle making.

1.4         HYPOTHESIS

1.            Inappropriate requirements for the production of candle is problems

2.            Lack of adequate raw materials is a major problem in the process of manufacturing of candles.

3.            Lack of students interest by not following the manufacturers instruction, knowledge and adequate skills, which is a problem in the production of candle.

4.            Inappropriate measures and chemical needed is a problems for candle making.

5.            The presence of unpleasant smell and sooting flames in the manufacturing process and when list which has an effect on the surrounding air by inhaling affects the health of people is the biggest problems.


This research work is significant for the following reasons because it will provide useful source of information to the teachers, students, parents, community and education officers on how to improve on the procedures of the production of candles.

Despite that, this study is also significant because it will help to throw some light on the accurate measurement involved in order to avoid little or major problems in the production of candles and findings solution to them.

1.6         SCOPE OF STUDY

The process of candle production from the composition of candle is indeed a universal article. As a matter of fact, I intended to deal extensively with this study for its under the importance in development of the process of candle production and the composition of candle involve however, the study covered few secondary schools in Ikpoa Okha Local Government Area of Edo State.


Paraffin wax: A wax-like substance obtained form petroleum, use especially for making candles.

Beewax: A yellowish wax made by bees for building honecombs, also used for making wood polish and candles.

Laboratory: A room or building in which scientific experiments are carried out.

Experiment: Is to work with instruments and apparatus in a practical investigation, on the behaviour and nature of substances.

Wick: Length of thread in the centre of a candle, the top end of which is lit and burns as the wax melts.



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