THE ROLE OF MASS MEDIA IN PROPAGATING CULTURE IN NIGERIA
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This study is on the role of mass media in propagating culture in Nigeria. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected Radio and TV stations in Abuja. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up of staffs from the study area were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies. Analysis of the data revealed the relevance of culture and that electronic media is an effective instrument for cultural propagation, but the problem is on its abuses and mal-administrative. Moreover, the study also programmes and other broadcasting stations in the country have silenced our nation’s cultural heritage.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Background to the study
Statement of Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the study
Delimitation /scope of study
Limitation of Study
Review of Related Literature
Summary of Literature Review
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
Population of Study
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Validity of Instrument
Administration of the Instrument
Method of Data Analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
Data presentation and Analysis
Discussion of Results
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
1.1 Background of the study
The role which the mass media play in the day-to-day running and shaping of the society cannot be under estimated. The mass media, integrate the communal functions of the society. This they do by creating, monitoring and reinforcing people. This means that in their daily operations, the mass media operate as essential tools for the direct project of ideas, thoughts and information. According to Becker L. (1983,20) “The choice of behaviour, policies and services which help people to select and construct picture of the world around them tend largely to depend on communication and its pattern of handling information”. The mass media is said to be the variety of channels through which mass communication takes place. Mass media involve those forms of media that are created, designed and used to reach very large audiences. The mass media is divided into electronic and print and, more recently, the interactive media. Each medium, electronic or print has its own peculiarities. Mass media are all forms of technologically mediated, institutionally organized and spontaneously expressed forms of social communication in the rural and urban areas which include radio, television, newspaper, magazines and most recently, the interactive media (Kornblum 2000:589; Hanson, 2005:5). Mass media involve a process in which professional communicators design and use media instruments to disseminate messages widely, rapidly, and selectively attending to audiences in attempt to influence them in a variety of ways (Dominick, 2009:7). In mass media, massages are intended for numerous individuals rather than for only a small number of individuals. The audience in mass communication is relatively large, heterogeneous, and anonymous to the source (Vivian, 2011:7-12). Added to this, the process of mass communication is a very complex one more complex than interpersonal communication. This is because every single message sent through a mass medium is transmitted through an elaborate system of machines and individuals and organizations. Culture and communication are inseparable. As Cooper et al (2007:12) explain, “Cultural norms and the media are inextricably linked”. Culture is made up of beliefs, values and norms and, these make up important variables that cement cultures. The media transmit cultural norms and values to its audience. This is one process of socialization, which help to unify a country and community of nations. Culture is the world made meaningful; and it is socially constructed and maintained through communication (Baran, 2012). Thus, mass communication contributes to the creation and maintenance of culture. The mass media are not only cultural storytellers, but also serve as a corpus of interacting fronts for global cultural integration. Certainly, the mass media have come to play dominant role in the creation and transportation of culture(s) to different parts of the world. As cultural norms and values of others are being transmitted to media audiences, people grow in social adaptation abilities. Therefore, the media role of cultural transmission is an effective educational tool for relaying cultural knowledge to the masses.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There are essential factors that motivated researchers to carry out on the use of mass media for cultural promotion in Nigeria. According to Arinze, A. (1973,5) “Nigerian’s are becoming increasingly aware of the culture and greater desire is being expressed for better understanding”. On the vein, there is an urgent need to improve our cultural heritage; and secondly to know why the western culture has displaced, dominated, destabilized and misbalanced ours. Every society that is future conscious and hopes to make a head-way development-wise must endeavour to exercise control over the background of their nation hence culture is not of their neighbours of the communities. Generally each community was contended with its own achievement and was unaware of its activities and development in distant communities. Inter-village wars and lack of means of transportation imposed restrictions or interaction between village and between towns. In those days western education as we know it today was virtuality absent and developing projects were centered on the tradition or culture of the community. Hence, in the area, of such major development like roads, hospitals, maternities or school, the need was not felt and communities were generally ignorant. In the area of transportation, which was felt even in those early days, developed, centered around narrow winding pathways for inter village communication and trade. In contrast to the above situation, today’s various influences both within and outside the confines of the communities. These influences have resulted in quest for development strategies on a comprehension scale. Exposure of government activities stretching into nooks and corners of the stage brought about greater interaction between communities of differentiating backgrounds. Coupled with this, social, economic, and political changes have been brought to the doorsteps of various communities. The deliberate or planned institutionalization of mass media, has been felt by various communities and this seems to have had direct bearing on both the extend the pattern of development projects. Emphasis has now shifted from isolated local thoughts rather in hereditary. Therefore the extent Western cultural has misbalanced our is causing an eye-sour to many enlightened citizenry of this our blessed country and as such for us to remain adamant to such challenging trend to give credit to evil. Revitalization and restoration of our cultural integrity should be universal welcome opinion to every dick and Henry to this nation. In the third world country like Nigeria, there is a perceived cultural imbalance. Lukewarm attitude of this generation towards our culture especially our youths is not something to write-home about. The Western culture which includes their way of dancing, greetings, dressing, eating, language etc, has eaten deep into the fabric of this society that we see our own style on these to be inferior and the consequences of that, is telling serious on us. This study will go a long way in resolving the conflicts and other societal problems which where method as a result of this cultural negligence. These problems posed on the society because of people’s poor attitude towards our cultural promotion in the hallmark for the motivation of the researcher to carry out this investigation
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are;
- To ascertain the role of mass media in propagating culture in Nigeria
- To ascertain the relationship between mass media and culture in Nigeria
- To examine if mass media recognizes its role in cultural propagation, preservation and maintenance in Nigeria
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The hypotheses stated below are raised in order to actualize the objectives of this study.
HO: there is no role of mass media in propagating culture in Nigeria
HI: there is role of mass media in propagating culture in Nigeria
HO: mass media do not recognizes its role in cultural propagation, preservation and maintenance in Nigeria
HI: mass media recognizes its role in cultural propagation, preservation and maintenance in Nigeria
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Through the analysis of the mass media reception, this study will highlight some benefits that could be derived from cultural programme portrays. It will as well give insight s to the extent the identified borrowed culture could be arrived or altered for the greater benefit of the individual and Nigerian society at large. This would pave way to nation building which all the third worlds are aiming at. Since cultural programmers would influenced writers, students, producers, directors and publishers, it would not be surprising that it can be used as a historical document to measure future changes. Significance is to find out the effectiveness of the various existing cultural programmes in the mass media. Last but not the least, this study is believed to guide people in the way they live their lives such as the way of dressing, speaking, eating, dancing, and greeting. That is to say that its beneficial to the society rather than one that will make them look or behave negatively in the society.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the role of mass media in propagating culture in Nigeria.
1.7 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work
1.8 DEFFINITION OF TERMS
SOCIAL MEDIA: Social media interactive computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks
Cultural Propagation: The promotion of people’s way of life; spread more widely.
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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