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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this work was to investigate the role of motivation in the approach of teaching business studies in Uhumwonde Local Government Area, Edo State. To guide the investigation three research hypotheses were formulated namely; there is no significant difference in the performance of students motivated and students not motivated. There is no significant difference between students that are positively motivated than those that are negatively motivated. There is no significant difference between students learning in conducive environment and those that do not. Teacher motivation naturally has to do teacher’s desire in participation in the education process. Motivation is commonly assumed to be a good thing that goes in influencing individual’s behaviours and performance at work. The subject for the study comprises of only teachers in the secondary schools. The selection of the school and teachers was based on simple random sampling. The statistical method used in analyzing the obtained data penetrated from the responses of the subject include the two tailed “t” test of significance between two independent sample means from the results of the subjects.

 

                                       CHAPTER ONE

                                      INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Motivation is the term used to describe the processes, both instructive and rational which people seek to satisfy their basic desires, perceived needs and personal goal which trigger human behaviour (Cole 1885) it is indeed the force that energize behaviour. An employer should be aware that the employees have different needs, different desires for responsibility, different level of knowledge and skills and different passive and are manipulated, motivated and controlled by the government as the knows what the citizens need and provide some of these needs. Needs may also be as a result of behaviour for instance a person’s needs for accomplishment may be made stringer by the satisfaction he derives from achieving a desired goal or it may be dulled by failure (William 1993).

Teachers education is one of the mainstays of democracy and national stability in the country because teachers in any country are said to be the most reliable industry that can put the country on lead the load to self – reliance because teacher’s are the producers of the manpower needs of the nation which will in turn provide the needed skills and labour of every sectors, example industrial, technological, health, scientific and social which form the core of the nation’s self – reliance.

The teacher is a vital factor to be reckon with in any educational system. Education is a must in the life of a nation that aspires for greatness. Good education must be qualitative and functional. A qualitative and functional education relies largely on a core of devoted, knowledgeable, competent and well – trained teachers who are exposed to real life situation State Primary Education Board (SPEB, 1994).

The continuance and survival of our educational system at all levels depends largely on the quality and quantity of professional teachers. This can only be achieved by meeting the motivational needs of teachers, need identification refers to what you require to enable you to do your work more effectively. But to say this is easier than doing it for various reasons.

Firstly, your own needs as an individual are forever changing as you grow older and more and more matured. Secondly the nature of your job, whether as a teacher or head continues to evolve, partly because of the results of the development of your own country, but also because of new inventions and the changing relationship of the human race to planet earth (Sisimayi, 1993).

According to Best (1984) “Education was seen as the necessary instrument immediately and essentially for the consolidation of the independence for securing the new nation against neocolonialism and for making workable the newly established self-government in a multi-ethic society” In view of this, mass education at least to the level of literacy was also viewed by the Nigeria leaders to be the basis to create a proper foundation for a democratic government. Up to date the desire to use education for national building has been very compelling, and so much as the faith in education that the school of the socialization but also for other social functions and for economic growth and development In attempt to achieve these goods, Universal Primary Education (UPE) and the Universal Basic Education (UBE) were introduced nationwide 1970 and 2000 respectively, although before these times, these were seen  and practiced in some parts of the country like the former western Nigeria under the late Chief Obafemi Awolowo. Today, Nigeria has witnessed a phenomenal expansion at all levels of her education.

Even though, the laudable motives seemed to justify the very high cost of the expanded education programme, especially of the late 1970s the schools in Nigeria are not really effective engines for the resulted into very disappointing performance at the school level, and as the basis of further academic achievements, the situation actually tends towards threatening the future of the nation. This situation is so because the able leaders that will be produced for the future cannot be illiterate and ignorantly trained.

The ugly situation has been causing a lot of concern and fears to various government quarters educationist, philanthropist, parents and the generality of the Public. Kolo, (2000) concluded that “This declining trend has been causing a lot of concern and fears in of various governmental quarters since the report concluded that the nation is heading for the breeding of generations illiterate Nigerians. The failure of Nigerian schools is thus indicating that the health and well – being of the nation’s society may be in jeopardy”.

Uhumwonde Local Government Area is one of the seven new local government created from the old Uhumwonde Local Government in 2001 by the administration of the former governor of Edo State, after its creation in 2001 Uhumwonde Local Government Area had being faced with so many challenges rending run population control funding, administration and federal government refusal to recognize the 37 newly created local government by the Edo State Government. Despite all this, frustrating moves, Uhumwonde Local Government as it was after named to be still in its little want gave the people it diverged to democracy under the chairmanship of late Osawan. Over the past decades several questions have been raised on the poor performance of students in schools also asked such questions as to why some students work harder at different tasks. Persisting in the fact of difficulties and late on succeed while some others are rather lazy and tend to give up in the face of difficulties the above situation is often as a result of result of lack of motivation being given to the learners.

An educational institution like the secondary primary schools which this project is meant to address has been damaged by lack of motivation with regard to teachers, much that the standard of education has dropped. This could associated to miss-management by teachers who fails to realize that motivation is natural. It is part of life particularly in our schools and cannot be eliminated or prevented completely from our lives. Motivation is primarily concerned with improving the teaching learning situation in schools. The major role of motivation is to stimulate guild and help students to improve on their learning. It give information relating to the provision of instructional internals and how certain concepts can be taught. The lack of proper motivation of the pupil to achieving their goals has been the major blame for this situation most probably against the background. A lot of personalities felt the motivation should be looked at more closely to prefer solutions. Uroom (1964) argues that the level of effort of an individual’s puts into an activity is influenced by the level of expectation that the action will be fully rewarded he noted that variables as attractiveness.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

Knowing or unknowingly human beings always strive to establish equilibrium all through their lives. The common beliefs is that whatever goes up must come down and in case of a country like Nigeria, people are prompted to use all resources at their disposal to solve their equilibrium created by a problem. Although everybody has his own characteristics ways of responding to such situation is the nature of the response determines to large extents the person’s adjustment to life. Robbin (1991) lay credence to this fact when he states that an unsatisfied need creates tension that stimulates drive within the individuals. The main problems therefore are low for a motivational indentures. Serves to enhance teaching situation; lack of motivation in a student is prime factor militating against teaching process; this can lead to loss of interest in the school activities. It can ultimately leads to a fall in the standard of education.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The issue of motivation has become an educational problem in teaching business studies in Nigeria. This study will stimulate thoughts and guideline towards finding solutions to the problem. The objective of this study is;

  1. To find out whether there is any effort on students exposed to motivation.
  2. To investigate if the students are well mutual.
  3. To identify the role of the teacher in motivation.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In question to research resolution into the above problems these research questions are listed;

  1. What is the level of teaching satisfaction among post primary school students in Uhumwonde Local Government Area, Edo State?
  2. Is there any significant relationship between motivation and student’s academic performance in Uhumwonde Local Government Area?
  3. Are the post primary school teachers in Uhumwonde Local Government Area motivated to perform their duty according to the standard set by the Government?
  4. What motivational incentives are available to learner?
  5. How do the learners respond to the incentives given to them?

The following research questions therefore cannot be left unanswered if this study must examine the role of motivation.

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

H0: There is no significant difference between students that are positively motivated than those that are negatively motivated

H1: There is a significant difference between students that are positively motivated than those that are negatively motivated

H0: there is no significant difference in the performance of students motivated and students not motivated

H2: there is a significant difference in the performance of students motivated and students not motivated

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study is considered to be very vital; for two major reasons. Motivation is a useful element in many teaching situation and a study of basic motivating factors which underline human behaviour is of paramount importance to facilitator in the teaching of business studies. It is important to note that this study will also expose help parents to understand how their children can perform better, this providing solutions to their problems.  It is hoped that when this research is completed, the findings will be significant not only to the teachers, the local government authority, the pupils themselves and even the society. To the teachers, it is hoped that the findings will be helpful to them by identifying their motivational needs which when accomplished will bring back their lost glory and make them more productive and that means a step in the right direction in producing a virile society. To the authority, the recommendations can assist them in improving in their manpower planning and development as well as be responsive to the yearnings of their citizens and that is what democracy is all about. To the pupils they stand to gain most because they will get qualitative education and be responsible leaders of tomorrow. To the society they stand to benefit from a highly productive and efficient teaching staff as well as disciplined, dedicated and productive youths which is an asset to any society.

1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Just like any other word, there are varieties of definitions to describe a concept like motivation. The concept of motivation no doubt seems broad, but it is important to focus on those that are related to the workplace. This study direct it attention to the motivational approach among business studies students and teachers in Uhumwonde Local Government Area, Edo State. It is virtually true that research work in any academic atmosphere is usually associated with certain problems and difficulties; hence this research work like any other research has experience a number of problems. The limitations in this study include the following;

Staff Reluctance: In most cases the staffs of the selected post primary schools in Uhumwonde Local Government Area, often feels reluctance over providing required information required by the researcher. This result in finding information where the structured questionnaires could not point out.

Researcher’s Commitment: The researcher, being of full time student spent most of her time on other academic activities such as test, class work, assignment, examination etc which takes average focus from this study.

Inadequate Materials: Scarcity of material is also another hindrance. The researcher finds it difficult to long hands in several required material which could contribute immensely to the success of this research work.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Approach: to come near or nearer to something or someone in space, time, quality, or amount.

Motivation: It is the act of encouraging people to do something or act in a particular way by giving them gifts, incentives or rewards.  In this context it refers to giving teacher’s gifts, promotions and allowing them to participate in the administration of the school.

Productivity: Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency of production. A productivity measure is expressed as the ratio of output to inputs used in a production process, i.e. output per unit of input. Productivity is a crucial factor in production performance of firms and nations. Increasing national productivity can raise living standards because more real income improves people’s ability to purchase goods and services, enjoy leisure, improve housing and education and contribute to social and environmental programs. Productivity growth also helps businesses to be more profitable.

Performance: It is the process or manna of performing duties, outstanding action or achievement.

Secondary schools: It refers to institutions for educating children.

Teachers: It refers to people who teach especially in a school.

1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

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