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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           i

Approval         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iii

Certification    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

Acknowledgement      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           v

Dedication      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vi

Table of Contents       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vii

Abstract          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           xi

 

CHAPTER ONE                                                                                                       

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study       –           –           –           –           –           –           1

1.2       Statement of the Problem       –           –           –           –           –           –           2

1.3       Research Questions     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           2

1.4       Objectives of the Study          –           –           –           –           –           –           3

1.5       Limitation of the Study          –           –           –           –           –           –           3

1.6       Hypothesis of the Study         –           –           –           –           –           –           3

1.7       Scope of the Study     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           4

1.8       Statement of the Research Hypothesis           –           –           –           –           4

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

\2.1      Theoretical Framework           –           –           –           –           –           –           6

2.2       Conceptual Review of the Study       –           –           –           –           –           9

2.3       Empirical Review        –           –           –           –           –           –           –          13

2.4       Concept of Poverty –  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           15

2.5       Theoretical Framework           –           –           –           –           –           –           17

2.6       Previous Empirical Studies on the Relationship between

Entrepreneurs and Alleviation            –           –           –           –           –           18

2.7       Alleviating Poverty through Entrepreneurship           –           –           –           19

2.8      Alleviating Poverty through Women Entrepreneurship          –           –           20

2.9      Women as Entrepreneur –       –           –           –           –           –           –           22

2.10     Gap in Knowledge      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           23

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Research Design         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           24

3.2       Area of the Study       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           24

3.3       Population of the Study          –           –           –           –           –           –           24

3.4       Sample Size     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           25

3.5       Methods of Data Collection   –           –           –           –           –           –           25

3.6       Analytical Technique  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           26

3.7       Source of Data                        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           27

 

CHAPTER FOUR

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

4.1       Socio-Economic Profile of Respondent         –           –           –           –           28

4.1.1    Age Distribution of the Respondent  –           –           –           –           –           28

4.1.2    Educational Qualification       –           –           –           –           –           –           29

4.2       Nature and Type of Entrepreneurship Businesses in

Isoko south Area in Delta State          –           –           –           –           –           31

4.2.1    Nature of Business      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           31

4.2.2    The size of Business    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           32

4.2.3    Ownership Structure   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           33

4.2.4    Year of operation        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           34

4.3       Assessment of Income and Employment Generating

Capacity of   Entrepreneurship           –           –           –           –           –           35

4.3.1    Income Generation     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           35

4.4       Impact of Entrepreneurship on Living Conditions of Owners           –           36

4.4.1    Income Level              –           –           –           –           –           –           –           36

4.4.2    Toilet Facility –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           36

4.4.3    Sources of Water        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           37

4.4.4    Sources of Energy for Cooking          –           –           –           –           –           37

4.4.5    Access to Medical Care          –           –           –           –           –           –           38

4.4.6    Sources of Electricity and Power Supply       –           –           –           –           38

4.4.7    Affordable and Adequate Meal per Day        –           –           –           –           39

4.4.8    Entrepreneurship increase Employment          –           –           –           –           39

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1       Summary of the Findings       –           –           –           –           –           43

5.2       Conclusion      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           43

5.3       Recommendations      –           –           –           –           –           –           44

Reference        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           46

Appendices     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           49

 

                                                                  

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

The study assessed the role of women entrepreneurs in poverty alleviation in rural communities of Isoko South Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria.  It specifically analysed the contribution of female-owned businesses to poverty alleviation in the study area. The main reason for this study was due to the fact that most studies on the relationship between businesses development and poverty alleviation have concentrated on aggregate effects of small businesses on poverty reduction with little attention on   gender issue in rural areas. Data were collected from primary source, using questionnaire on a sample of 205 female-0wned   enterprises. Responses of the respondents were analysed using percentages and the chi-square tests were carried out to support the analysis. The study therefore concluded that female-owned microenterprises have played key role in poverty alleviation among the businesses’ owners in Isoko south Division through income generation.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the study

Poverty is one of the main economic problems facing most countries in the world. There have been several strategies to tackle poverty in its various forms and dimensions. Of recent, there   has   been a shift from the capital intensive large-scale industrial policy to Small-scale policy as small scale industries viewed as a sector that creates substantial employment opportunities as they are relatively labour intensive. In the light of this, different levels of government in Nigeria have embraced the challenge of promoting entrepreneurship as an engine for economic growth. There are many studies on the relationship between entrepreneurship development and poverty rates and overall microeconomic performance on the basis of aggregate time series data. But most of the studies have neglected the individual traits of businesses and gender issue, and with less attention on rural areas. This study is gender sensitive as it investigates the roles of small businesses owned by women in rural areas in poverty alleviation. The study employed primary data. The target population was all the women-owned enterprises from eight communities in Isoko South Local Government Area in Delta State of Nigeria. Data were collected from primary source, using questionnaire on a sample of 205 female-0wned   enterprises. Responses of the respondents were analysed using percentages and the chi-square tests were carried out to support the analysis. The study therefore concluded that   female-owned microenterprises have played key role in poverty alleviation   among the businesses’ owners in Isoko south Division through income generation and job creation.

1.2       Statement of the Research Problem

In view of the escalating level of poverty in developing countries constituting a serious problem to economic growth and welfare state of the citizenry,  various policies were implemented  which could not significantly impact on the level of poverty. The failure of various reforms and development programmes to impact on the level of welfare of the citizens in terms of poverty reduction particularly through employment generation, triggered the reappraisal of the role and importance of small and medium sized enterprises as a viable channel to attaining economic growth and development especially in terms of reducing the poverty level in the economy as was witnessed in the developmental progress and economic transformation of some developed countries. In most developing countries, attention   has not   been focussed on development of

Businesses owned by women due to the perception of their traditional role at home. In Nigeria, there are few studies on   the actual contribution of the women-owned micro, entrepreneurship to employment creation, income generation and wealth creation in rural areas, hence this study.

 

1.3       Research Questions

The study addressed the following   questions.

(i)   What motivates the women in Isoko south local government area of Delta state to      engage in entrepreneur?

(ii)    To what extents do the contribution of women entrepreneurs’ alleviated poverty?

 

1.4       Objectives of the study

The broad objective of this study is to assess the role of small and medium businesses owned by women in reducing   poverty in Isoko south Local Government Area in Delta state, Nigeria through job creation and income generation. The specific objectives are to:

  1. Analyse the characteristics of female business owners in Delta State.
  2. Assess the extent to which   the entrepreneurship   has reduced poverty among the women owners in Delta State.

 

1.5       Limitation of the Study

Some factors may limit the level of accuracy and reliability of this study. Factors include:

  1. difficulty in obtaining data
  2. Low response rate from individual parties.

In the absence of the above mentioned limitations, all other errors and omissions are entirely those of the researcher.

1.6       Hypothesis of the study

This study would be guided by the following hypothesis

Ho: Participation in entrepreneurship by female does not improve the standard of living.

Hi: participation in entrepreneurship by female improves the standard of living.

 

1.7       Scope of the study

Delta State is bounded by Bayelsa, Edo and Anambra state. In the local government in Delta State, Isoko south is one of the largest with good number of women entrepreneurs. This study focuses on Isoko south local government area alone, from the president of the isoko south market women association, the researcher found out that a  total population of 230 women entrepreneurs are registered at the Association of Small and Medium Enterprises in Isoko south local government area of Delta state.

The target population of the study was all women entrepreneurs in Isoko south Metropolis both in the manufacturing and service industries. A total population of 230 women entrepreneurs who were registered at the Association of Small and Medium Enterprises in Isoko south metropolis served the population of the study. The study is gender sensitive in that it focuses on female alone. We examined their educational qualification, age, type of business, years in operation, income level, source of energy for their business, challenges and means of distribution.

 

1.8       Significance of the study

This study will help bring to light the activities of the women entrepreneurs in Isoko south local government area of Delta state; it will draw the attention of the media and political leaders in isoko south metropolis and beyond. The beneficiaries of this work are the women entrepreneurs and other people who are consumers of their products that have been looking for these products in locally made form which is more affordable; it will also help the women entrepreneurs to see other markets were their products can be sold with ease and draw the attention of the government to the role these women has in poverty alleviation. With the aid of this study their challenges will be given attention, challenges like source of power supply, were to get low interest rate loan, access to good road and other of their basic challenges. There are women entrepreneurs in isoko south local area of Delta state, but they need serious encouragement for them to continue, this study will go a long way in helping them get helping hands.

 

 

 

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