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| Format: Ms Word | 1-5 Chapters | Table of Content|


Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE

Amount: ₦3,000.00


The study was set to investigate the socio-economic impact of rural-urban migration on the rural areas in Niger State. A lot has been said about the rising of rural urban migration in recent years. This phenomenon has attracted the concern of economists, the government both at the federal and state levels because of its attendant’s problems such problems associated with rural-urban migration on the rural areas include decline in agricultural production, migration decline, rural poverty, rural depopulation, demographic consequences etc. it is against this background that the researcher has made conscious effort to examine the socio-economic impact of the rural urban migration in Lapai local government area. The study has carried out using 100 questionnaires administered to the indigenes from the study area, and moreover 10 indigenes were interviewed personally. The analysis of the data shows that many reasons are responsible for the rural urban migration in Niger State. Prominent among these reasons is the issues of lack of employment opportunities. As a result of the above, it is recommended that an integrated rural development planning should be vigorously pursued by the government. If all the recommendations were to be adopted by the government, it will minimize the mass movement of rural dwellers to urban cities.  




            There have been rapid increase of youths movements from rural area to urban centres, no one is in doubt today of the fact the rate at which people (especially, the youths) move from rural area to urban centres is affecting the lives of the rural dwellers. Nigeria is a developing country; in fact, she is at the threshold of being a developed nation. On this note it is wise to be acquainted with the meaning of the world “migration”.

            Migration according to Udo (2010) defined migration as the permanent or semi-permanent change in residence from one administrative unit (district, country, province, state or country) to another. And it is usually considered to be an economic man’s reaction to socio-economic differentials between regions. Migration has become an important factor influencing population dynamics in a geographical area. Fertility and mortality determines the rate of natural population increase in any locality. The overall size of the population such an area depend on the pattern of migration. Population movements are often responsible for observable sudden changes in population size in many locality. It is however, pertinent to note that migration is an instrument to the solution of many social and economic problems. As a socio-economic act, migration may not be of interest in itself other than in the result of its effect, but it does often gives rise to problems as well as providing solutions.

            My people from rural area have been moving to urban centres. Rural urban has attracted many people simply because of white collar jobs, education, change of environment, climate or whether condition etc. The rural urban migration in in Niger State can be seen as a spontaneous human effort to achieve balance between population and resources. It is natural phenomenon which produces demographic social and economic interaction that reduces some of the irregularities of nature i.e. people wants to move from a place where there are no socio amenities (rural), to where there are socio amenities (cities). According to Lawai (2013). The implications of this movement is that while most of our urban centres suffers from over population of people and activities, rural areas are often under populated. There are two factors responsible for this movement from rural area to urban centres. These are the “push” and the “pull” factors.

Push factors: This factor causes the forwards movement of people from rural to urban centres. While the pull factor, it directed or draw people towards itself e.g. education, white collar job and among others. The most affected people in this rural urban migration are the educated youths who are unable to obtain a suitable job in a rural area.

            Rural-urban migration has a dual impact on the individual as well as the community either directly or indirectly. It is through the contribution of successful migrants that most important projects in Lapai local government area have been made possible. This fact can be buttressed by the financial support given to gigantic project like the building of community school and village town hall in Lapai. It is against this introductory background of the study that the researcher has intended to examine how rural-urban migration has affected the socio-economic development of rural settlement with particular reference to Lapai local government area of Niger State.

1.2              STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS    

Since 1960 there has been massive movement of people from rural areas to urban centres. This project was meant to find out the socio-economic impacts of rural-urban migration. Prothero (1965) recognizes four of rural urban migration which are the daily movement, seasonal migration, short-term or periodic movements, definitive or long term movements.

Rural-Urban Migration has become too rampant on the rural areas especially the study area Lapai local government area of Niger State. And they migrate without considering the socio-economic impact of this movement on their parents and the community in general.

            Perhaps this movement may be as a result of lack of social amenities in the rural areas, searching for white collar jobs, for education purposes, climate condition among others. This is what the researcher will find out in this project. But finance and time has been the major constraints to the realization of this research work.   

1.3 Objectives of the study

1.3.1 General objective

 The overall objective of the study is to explore the general socio-economic effect of rural-urban migrants in Lapai local government area.

1.3.2 Specific objective 

 The study also has the following specific objectives;

  1. To assess the effect of rural-urban migration particularly on economic aspects (employment, cost of living, urban informal sectors) in the study area.
  2. To investigate the effect of in-migration particularly on social services (education, housing, health and other social facilities) in the study area.
  3.  To investigate the major pressure that rural-urban migrants create on physical environment of the rural area.
  4.  To review the push and pull factor of rural-urban migration in Lapai local government area.
1.4      Research questions  

 The study is intended to respond the following research questions:

1. What is the effect of the rural-urban migrants on the economic aspect of the rural area?

2. What are the effect of rural-urban migrants in providing social services and amenities in rural area?

3. Do the rural-urban migration affect the urban environment of Niger state?

4. What are the main push and pull factor for large number of youth to Lapai local government area?


– The study when successfully completed will be of value to the educational planners.

–  The study will be of importance to researchers/students working on related topics.

–  The study will reveal the reasons why people migrate from rural area to urban centres.

–  The study will also be an addition to previous work on the topic. Thus, an addition to knowledge.  


Migration: This means the movement of people from one place to another.

Settlement: This is a place where people live.

Emigration: It is the movement of people out of a country.

Immigration: This is the movement of people into country.

Net migration: The difference between the number of immigration and emigrants.

Immigrant: These are people that move into a country.

Emigrants: These are people that engage in the movement out of a country.

 1.7 Limitation of the study

The central aim of the study is to investigate the effect of rural-urban migrants in Lapai local government area.

In doing so, attempts have been made to address the issues based primarily on perspectives of migrants and their destination. But, in addressing the issue, this study focuses only in the assessment socio-economic and demographic effects of rural-urban migration in their destination and not origin of migrants. It also lacks to reveal economic impact of high influx of youths from rural areas.

1.8 Methodology of the study

 The study will assess both primary and secondary data. Using more than one data collection approach give opportunity to the researcher to combine the strengths and correct some of the deficiencies of any one source of data. Primarily questionnaire which includes open-ended and closed ended would distributed for both migrants and for non-migrant local residents of the rural area. In-depth interview would also conduct to substantiate the responses acquired through questionnaires. Their responses were interpreted and analyzed using descriptive statistics. In addition to this, published and unpublished literatures were used.



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