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This study looks into the causes, effects and solutions to youth unemployment problems in Nigeria. The rate at which unemployed graduates roam the street after the National Youth Service constitutes social malice to the country as a whole. The data was collected from both primary and secondary sources using descriptive approach of previous researches and analysis of scholars to gather empirical data. The findings revealed that unemployment in Nigeria among youths are caused by six major problems and six major effects which has created tension and hatred between the haves and have not, leading to communal clashes and the rise of such groups such as Boko Haram, Niger Delta Militant, armed robbery, prostitution and child trafficking constituting hiccups to security of lives and properties. Also, the findings revealed that unemployment in Nigeria increased from 21.1% in 2010 to 23.9% in 2011 with youth unemployment at over 50%. From 2011 to 2013 there is an increase of 16% unemployment growth rate in Nigeria. Significantly, the impact of this study is that government should create labour market that work better for the youth’s employment.

                                      CHAPTER ONE



Current World Population include an estimated 1.2 billion young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years, which is about 24.7% of the world’s working age population. Worldwide youth unemployment is high, almost three times higher than the adult unemployment rate. With the economic downturn, the worldwide youth unemployment is expected to reach 25% in 2012 (International Labour Organisation, 2008).

In certain parts of the world, especially Sub-Saharan, African, youth unemployment rates can be as high as 60%. More than one third of the young people in the world are unemployed, have completely given up looking for a job or are working but still living below the $2 a day poverty line (International Labour Organisation), or have migrated. Young job seekers face increasing difficulties finding work in the current economic scenario and these have resulted in several social phenomena in the society.

Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the eighth most populous country in the world with a population of 154, 729,000 citizens. Our nominal GDP is $207.166 billion and we have a nominal per capita income of $140,011. Nigeria also has the second largest economy in Africa, if I may ask, is this country not blessed? Yet, it is still plagued by youth unemployment which had been one of our major problems in recent years. Both government and the private sector had discussed this issue at forums and conferences but have not found a solution to it. Its continued existence has been linked to lack of power supply and financial empowerment for youths.

Youth unemployment in Nigeria is mostly referred to as graduate unemployment and this means that only the skilled youths are seen as unemployed while the unskilled youths are not given any consideration. However, youths are not a homogenous group and their employment prospects differ according to numerous factors ranging from region to gender to schooling. These phenomena have pushed the Nigerian youths to a stage of anomie and they have adopted dysfunctional methods, such as: armed robbery, prostitution, terrorism, kidnapping, thuggery, militancy, internet scam, fraudulent acts, and so on, in order to cope with the increasing trend of economy meltdown in the country.

This research will x-ray how the impact of unemployment in Nigeria has severely affected youths. The study will examine the rural and urban population of people living in the area responses to unemployment predicaments and their differential variables.


Nigeria needs to critical and creative thinking in order to achieve a common goal. There are still many national goals yet to be achieved such as good education  and better future for our children, infrastructure in both rural and urban areas, steady power supply, food industry and adequate transportation and it is mainly by coming together, promoting unity in diversity that we can achieve what we want. Due to high level of unemployment in the country, people have adopted dysfunctional methods such as pick-pocketing, kidnapping, assassination, political thuggery, prostitution, defrauding and so on, in order to provide themselves with income and enhances their societal survival.

People living in Nigeria see these dysfunctional methods as an alternative to their unemployment status in the area, as the government have failed to provide the unemployment opportunities needed as one of the basic necessity in life.

Base on the above statements, many questions arise like, why is the rate of unemployment at an alarming rate in Nigeria, despite the area richness in mineral and natural resources? And what are the destructive effect of these social phenomena to the youths of Nigeria?


This study will provide answers to the following research questions;

  1. What is the extent of youth employment in Nigeria?
  2. What are the consequences of youth employment in the country?
  3. How is the Government tackling the unemployment plague in Nigeria?
  4. In what ways has the unemployment rate relates to the high rate of social vices in Nigeria?
  5. What are the effects of youth’s unemployment in northern and southern region of Nigeria?


The Main objective of the study is to critically examine how unemployment can affect the outcome of youth social behaviour and characteristics in the society. In line with the statement of problems, the study will also seek to achieve the following minor objectives:

  1. To investigate the effect of unemployment on youth activities in Nigeria.
  2. To unravel various social phenomena that unemployment is the causative factor in Nigeria.
  • To review the Nigerian Government strategies concerning youth unemployment in Nigeria.
  1. To find out the different variables between urban and rural youth unemployment Nigeria.
  2. To help provide various methods to reduce youth unemployment in Nigeria.


This study will be beneficial in many ways; it will serve as a tool for further research work for other researchers who will endeavor to carry out research in the same field in future. The study will help government to provide profer solutions as regard unemployment and its effects on youths in Nigeria as a whole. It will further help scholars towards the advancement of knowledge, such as reference material, term paper topic, and symposium and seminar presentation.

The study will serve as a guide and important tool in the fight against high level of unemployment. It will also serve as a base or premises for other researchers to challenge, amend, and provide corrections to the research work. The study will provide answers to various arms of governments in Nigeria about unemployment and its causative factors in the society, especially the youths.


The study of this nature unemployment and its effects on Nigerian youth is so broad in nature, for to gather vital information within the frame of this study the research centers specifically on unemployed youths in Nigeria.

A wide research of this nature cannot be carried out without some constraints, this constraints pose a lot of limitations to this work.

Time: the time at the disposal of the researcher which is allocated for the study was a major limitation as the researcher has to combine other academic work with the study.

Finance: The finance at the disposal of the researcher in the course of the study does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.


Unemployment: In economics, unemployment refers to the condition and extent of joblessness within an economy, and is measured in terms of the unemployment rate, which is the number of unemployed persons divided by the total civilian labour force. Hence, unemployment is the condition of not having a job often referred to as being out of work, or unemployed. The history of unemployment is the history of industrialization.


Unemployed youths:



This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion and also recommendations made of the study.



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