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Abstract

This study intends to examine vocational guidance and senior secondary school student’s choice of career in business education in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The study adopted simple percentage in the analysis of the study, and both questionnaire and interview guide were used in gathering the data.  A 20 item research questionnaire was used to gather responses from 200 selected respondents from 5 secondary schools within Uyo metropolis. The respondents were randomly chosen out of the population, using SSS1 and SSS2 students as its subject. Two hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed to a great extent vocational guidance leads to adequate career choice among senior secondary schools students in business education; Vocational guidance has become indispensable in our educational sector today and there are some factors that influence career choice taking of senior secondary school students. The study concludes that vocational guidance practically reduces the level of unemployment among school leavers, and some recommendations were made to strengthen the level of vocational guidance services in the State.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledge
Abstract
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the study
Statement of Problem
Research Questions
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the study
Delimitation /scope of study
Limitation of Study
CHAPTER TWO:

Review Of Relation Literature
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
Research design
Population of Study
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Research Instrument
Validity of Instrument
Administration of the Instrument
Method of Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
Data presentation and Analysis
Discussion of Results
CHAPTER FIVE:   SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Summary
Conclusion
Recommendation
References
Appendix

 

 

                                       CHAPTER ONE

                                      INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Making appropriate career choice has long become an uphill task among secondary school students in Nigeria; this is where vocational guidance sets in to remedy the challenges. There has been a wide research on secondary student’s choice of career by some researchers, but until now nothing much has been done in relation to vocational guidance and career choice in business education. In Nigeria, students lack adequate occupational information before they enter into occupations. In some cases, the students concern themselves with reading up courses in the schools without due regard to the marketability and employability of the graduates in the field. Vocational guidance was first developed by frank parsons in the year 1908, a time he was faced with the challenge of giving a name to what he thinks the school should provide as a service to school leavers about to go into the world of work. According to parsons in his book choosing a vocation, the term vocational guidance was referred to the process of assisting people chose a vocation, prepare for it and attain efficiency and success. The national vocational guidance association that was set up in American in (1924) went on to state that vocational guidance is regarded as choosing an occupation, preparing for it and entering into it and progressing in it.

Vocational guidance started formally in Nigerian in 1959 at St. Theresa’s college Oke-Ado in Ibadan by some reverend sisters out of sympathy for the products of their school. They felt that these secondary school leavers would have problems in seeking for admission for further studies, looking for employment and adjusting to the hard conditions of the society after leaving school. They then invited some resource persons on various fields on the world of work and personal adjustment in the society.

Vocational guidance refers to the inevitable direction given to the care of new employees in the selection process and in their assignment to particular types of work (Dale Yoder, 1995). Vocational guidance is a facilitative process, a service rendered to the individual to aid him in choosing and adjusting to an occupation (John D. Crites, 2001). Vocational guidance is a process of assisting an individual to choose an occupation, prepare for it, enter up on and progress on such occupation”. According to Basavage (2007), Career choice is one of many important choices students will make in determining future plans and that this decision will impact them throughout their lives. The essence of who the student is or want to become will revolve around what the student wants to do with their lifelong work. She went ahead to ask what really influences university students in one way or another. The primary goal of career guidance and counseling is to make it possible for an individual to see and explore his or her unlimited endowed options. it is an undeniable fact that the major service areas of guidance and counseling are, educational guidance and counseling which assists students in their choices of career, vocational guidance and counseling which assists the individual to choose and prepare for an occupation that is compatible with his interests and aptitudes, and personal and social guidance and counseling which assists the individual to behave appropriately in relation to other members of the society (Odeck 2009 ; Ipaye, 2015).

Vocational guidance and counseling services are essential tools in student development especially during adolescent stage. Adolescent stage is characterized by rapid growth and change: socially, spiritually, physically, morally and intellectually. Most of adolescents are in secondary schools, that is why guidance and counseling services are very essential. According to Bark (2003), guidance and counseling are the assistance made available by qualified and trained persons to an individual of any age to help him to manage his own life activities, develop his own points of view, make his own decisions and carry his own burden. In addition, Braddock (2001) states that, the purpose of guidance and counseling in schools is to improve academic achievement, foster positive study attitudes and habits, increase acquisitions and application of conflict resolution skills, and decrease school dropouts. Lack of guidance and counseling in adolescence has resulted to increase in unpleasant outcomes in the society. These include school dropouts, drug abuse, crimes, and even failure to secure jobs. Anastasi (1990) also adds that the task of educational guidance and counseling is to enable a student to adjust himself to his studies by improving his study attitude and removing subject matter difficulties. When guidance and counseling services is lacking in schools, students’ adaptation becomes difficult thus leading to poor performance, misbehavior and dropout.

Career selection is one of many important choices students will make in determining future plans; this decision will impact them throughout their lives. The essence of who the student is will revolve around what the student wants to do with their life-long work. Indeed vocational and career related issues are salient across different cultures and nationalities Leung (2004). In an age of economic globalization, all individuals are affected by an array of work related concern; some of these concerns are unique to certain cultures, but others are not too many cultural groups.

  • Statement of the Problem

Research shows that secondary school students in Nigeria generally are faced with problem of vocational or career choice towards the end of their secondary school education; this is as a result of the poor form of guidance programs being run in secondary schools. The high rate of unemployment and underemployment among school leavers in Nigeria is a serious issue for concern. It is contended that one of the contributing factors of unemployment cum under employment among school leavers in the country could be inadequate or lack of vocational guidance to students while in and out of school. In other words they are not given sufficient and relevant vocational or occupational information that will enable them graduate from school to a suitable occupation. It is through a graduate’s occupation that he/she is expected to serve the country, contribute and at the same time benefit from economic growth and national development. In a case where is not properly guided on career decision making by a professional guidance counselor; it would not be possible for such individual to contribute to economic and national development after graduation. On another view point, guidance and counseling programmes in secondary schools has not been given the proper attention it deserves; and until the proper attention is given to this form of education programme, majority of secondary school students will continue to have difficulty in career decision making. Okolie (2014) asserts that many secondary school students lack ideas on which course to study in the higher education institution after leaving secondary school. Also the list of vocations appear inexhaustible, likewise the variety of persons with varied attributes; and certainly not all persons are suitable for all vocations because every vocation needs certain background, preparation and aptitude; therefore only those that have the requirements succeed. It is the opinion of this study to stress the importance of vocational guidance in senior secondary school students in Nigeria.

1.3 Objective of the Study

The primary purpose of this study is to examine vocational guidance and senior secondary school student’s choice of career in business education. Specifically, this study intends to determine;

  1. To ascertain the impact of vocational guidance on the choice of career for secondary school students in Akwa Ibom State.
  2. To access the counselor-student relationship in vocational guidance on the career choice business education.
  • To ascertain the relationship between teachers and vocational guidance on the choice of career of secondary school students.
  1. To proffer solutions to the problem of career choice and vocational guidance in senior secondary schools in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions were formulated by the researcher to guide the study;

  1. Is there any significant relationship between the school counselor and students on the career choice business education?
  2. Does vocational guidance have any impact on the choice of career of senior secondary school students?
  3. Is there any significant relationship between teachers and vocational guidance on the choice of career of secondary school students?
  4. What is the level of vocational guidance services in secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State?
  5. What is the attitudes of senior students toward vocational guidance in Akwa Ibom State?

1.5   Research Hypotheses

The following null and alternate hypotheses were formulated by the researcher for testing:

HO: The level of vocational guidance services in secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State is high.

H1: The level of vocational guidance services in secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State is low.

HO: There is no significant relationship between the school counselor and students on the career choice in business education.

H2: There is significant relationship between the school counselor and students on the career choice in business education.

  • Significance of the Study

The importance of this research work cannot be over emphasized. It is important to students’ in our secondary schools. The findings of this study is expected to help the curriculum developers to design educational programs that would be used in teaching specific aptitude and skills required by students to be able to implement their vocational aspiration in business education. The study will be of great benefit to secondary school students in acquiring skills and attitude necessary to develop educational goals which are suited to their needs, interest and abilities. To the teachers in secondary schools in providing necessary supports, guide and counseling pertaining to students choice of career. To parents so they could look inward at the children’s attitude, interest and aspirations and not force the youths on a particular vocation. To scholars, governments, researchers and the general public who intend to broaden the search on the impacts of vocational guidance on career choice. To school management to have an insight into areas where there are needs for guidance services. It will also assist the guidance unit to seek for ways of obtaining and sustaining guidance services support for the students.

  • Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study centers on the impact of vocational guidance and senior secondary students in business education in Uyo Local Government Area. However the research has some constraints which are;

Time: the time at the disposal of the researcher which is allocated for the study was a major limitation as the researcher has to combine other academic work with the study.

Finance: The finance at the disposal of the researcher in the course of the study does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.

  • Definition of Terms

Vocational guidance: Vocational guidance is a facilitative process, a service rendered to the individual to aid him in choosing and adjusting to an occupation.

Career: A career is an individual’s journey through learning, work and other aspects of life. There are a number of ways to define a career and the term is used in a variety of ways.

Guidance: help and advice about how to do something or about how to deal with problems connected with your work, education, or personal relationship.

Vocational education: Vocational education is education that prepares people to work in a trade, a craft, as a technician, or in professional vocations such as engineering, accountancy, medicine, nursing, law etc. Craft vocations are usually based on manual or practical activities and are traditionally non-academic but related to a specific trade or occupation. Vocational education is sometimes referred to as career education or technical education.

Guidance Counselors: A school counselor is a counselor and an educator who works in primary (elementary and middle) schools and/or secondary schools to provide academic, career, college access/affordability/admission, and social-emotional competencies to all students through a school counseling program.

Adolescents:  meaning to grow up which is a transitional stage of physical and psychological development that generally occurs during the period from puberty to legal adulthood (age of majority).

 

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