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ROUTE SURVEY OF THE STRETCH OF ROAD FROM ORIAWO ALONG OGBOMOSO ROAD, OYO TO SCHOOL OF SCIENCE, SABO OYO TOWN, ATIBA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, OYO STATE

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ABSTRACT

Theproject was focused on the execution of route surveying for the purpose of road reconstruction from Oriawo along Ogbomosho road, Oyo to School of Science, Sabo Oyo Town. Stations were selected along the existing route at regular intervals as in the specifications

Theodolite traverse was run over stations, while levels were observed along the longitudinal and cross-sections of the traverse lines. All data were gathered with effective orientation from the controls, these were used to produce the plans (with appropriate scale) showing horizontal alignment, profile and cross-sections. 

TABLES OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE …………………………………………………………………………i

CERTIFICATE. ii

CERTIFICATION.. iii

DEDICATION.. iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. v

ABSTRACT. vi

LIST OF FIGURE.. x

LIST OF TABLES. xi

CHAPTER ONE.. 1

1.0 INTRODUCTION.. 1

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY.. 1

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS. 2

1.3.0 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY.. 2

1.3.1 AIM… 2

1.3.2 OBJECTIVES. 2

1.5 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT. 4

1.6       PERSONNEL. 5

1.7       STUDY AREA.. 5

CHAPTER TWO.. 6

2.0       LITERATURE REVIEW… 6

RECONNAISSANCE. 9

PRELIMINARY SURVEY.. 9

LOCATION SURVEY.. 10

OFFICE LOCATION: – 10

CHAPTER THREE.. 12

3.0       METHODOLOGY.. 12

3.1       RECONNAISSANCE. 12

3.1.1        OFFICE PLANNING.. 13

3.1.2   FIELD RECONNAISSANCE. 13

3.2      DATA ACQUISITION.. 16

3.2.1        EQUIPMENT USED.. 16

3.2.2    TEST OF INSTRUMENT. 17

3.2.2.2   LEVEL INSTRUMENT TEST (TWO PEG TEST) 17

3.2.3     CONTROL CHECK.. 19

3.2.3.1 SELECTION OF STATIONS. 23

3.2.3.2 MONUMENTATION.. 23

3.2.4  FIELD OBSEVATION.. 23

3.2.4.1        ANGULAR MEASUREMENT. 24

3.2.4.2 LINEAR MEASUREMENTS. 25

3.2.4.3 LEVELING.. 25

3.2.4.5 DETAILING.. 27

CHAPTER FOUR.. 29

4.0      DATA PROCESSING AND RESULT ANALYSIS. 29

4.1       FIELD BOOKS REDUCTIONS. 29

4.1.1        HORIZONTAL ANGLE REDUCTION.. 29

4.1.2        VERTICAL ANGLE REDUCTION.. 30

4.1.3        LINEAR MEASUREMENT REDUCTION.. 30

4.2.1 FORWARD COMPUTATION.. 31

4.2.1.1 BEARING REDUCTION.. 31

4.2.1.2 CORRECTION TO BEARING.. 31

4.2.1.3 COORDINATES REDUCTION.. 31

4.2.1.4 COORDINATES ADJUSTMENTS. 32

4.2.2        BACK COMPUTATION.. 32

4.2.3 LEVELING COMPUTATION AND ADJUSTMENTS. 33

4.2.3.1 LEVELING ADJUSTMENT. 34

4.2.4 ACCURACY.. 34

4.2.4.1 ANGULAR ACCURACY.. 34

4.2.4.2   LEVELING ACCURACY.. 35

4.2.4.3 LINEAR ACCURACY.. 35

4.3       RESULT ANALYSIS. 36

4.4       EXTRACT OF RESULT. 37

4.6      INFORMATION PRESENTATION (ANALOG AND DIGITAL) 37

4.6.1        PLAN PRODUCTION.. 38

4.6.2       MANUAL PLOTTING.. 38

4.6.3        DIGITAL PLOTTING.. 38

CHAPTER FIVE.. 39

5.0       SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION.. 39

5.1       SUMMARY.. 39

5.2       PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED.. 39

5.3       CONCLUSION.. 39

5.4       RECOMMENDATIONS. 40

REFERENCES. 41

APPENDICES. 42

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Engineering Surveying is one of the branches of surveying which from the general express for any survey work carried out in connection with construction engineering and building project, it is a large scale topographical map survey which the basis for design of engineering works such as highways, railways, canals, tunnels, dams, pipelines and transmission lines.

In the word of engineering and environmental studies, surveying has been recognized as the inevitable operation been described as be the bedrock of every meaningful development. The greater part of its responsibility is seen from the various types of surveying which are all geared toward promoting route ways, convenience, accessibility and spatial declination of both natural and social environment. In addition, surveying means the activities of planning, designing, constructions, development and rehabilitation of roads, depending on the survey data required by the surveyor.

Route survey which is an aspect of engineering survey may be defined as the survey operation that is done for the establishment of the horizontal and vertical alignment of transportation facilities. It involved: planning, design and setting out of any route such as railways, highways, pipelines and canals etc. as obtained by a surveyor and it also involved the proper assessment of natural and man-made features. 

            In addition, this type of survey should be applied when there is need for alignment, expansion, or rehabilitation at any existing route (road) e.g. for traffic purposes. The reason is that route survey provides a plan/map that shows the alignment, details, profile and cross sectional leveling which depicts the nature of the terrain of a given strip of land which serves the purpose of location, design and construction of route networks.

            Good road network is one of the basic amenities needed by human being as movement is one of the characteristics of living things. There are needs for people to move from one place to the other and transportation of goods and services. Therefore for any meaningful development in a country, good road is a must.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

            It was discovered that the route from Oriawo along Ogbomosho road, Oyo to School of Science, Sabo Oyo Town Area, had been badly eroded and full of potholes; also, the road is found to be too narrow and needed to be extended considering the volume of traffic plying the road. Rehabilitation of this road should be carried out in other to increase its carrying capacity thereby increase the physical development and human activities therein. Due to these, certain information about the road must be acquired which calls for route survey so as to get the baseline data necessary for the road design.

1.3.0 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1.3.1 AIM

The main aims of this project are as follows:

  • To carry out route survey of the road in the project area for the purpose of acquitting students with the techniques involved in route survey .i.e. to test the abilities of students on how to plan, execute and to produce plans, charts or maps showing a proposed road for future development in a given area.

(ii)        To acquire necessary data required for the engineering design of the road.

(iii)       To produce both horizontal and vertical alignment plans of the route survey running from Oriawo along Ogbomosho road, Oyo to School of Science, Sabo Oyo Town. Atiba local govt. area.

(iv)  To serve as a requisite for the award of National Diploma in Surveying and Geo-informatics at Federal School of Surveying, Oyo, Oyo-State.

1.3.2 OBJECTIVES

In actualization of the said aim of the project, the following objectives

Were followed sequentially:

  • Reconnaissance which include office planning and field reconnaissance.
  • Identification of existing features and adjoining roads.
  • Stability of the ground controls to be use for orientation.
  • Determination of centre line and marking of chainages along the centre line at an interval of 30m.
  • Marking out some selected points for the cross-sectioning at 7.5m and 15m intervals to the right and left on the profile and also the edges of drainage was marked.
  • Tertiary theodolite traverse to determine the reallocation and orientation of the road way.
  • Leveling to determine the height of some selected points along the road.
  • Detailing by the use of a total station (Leica TC600).
  • Plan production (graphical representation of the surveyed road way) drawn with appropriate scale.
  • Reports write up.

1.4 PROJECT SPECIFICATIONS

The following are the specification to be ascertained in the project:

  • Traverse must commence on three coordinated (known) controls and closed on another set of three coordinated controls which must be confirmed undisturbed by necessary measurement (control checks).
  • Third order theodolite traverse must be run along the route on all turning points at one zero observation and the angular difference  from both faces should not be more than thirty seconds (30″), the angular misclosure is determined by 30″√n,  

Where ‘n’ is the total number of station observed.

  • Establishing traverse points by using pegs together with nails and bottle corks. 
  • Spirit leveling must commence on a known benchmark and closed back on another known benchmark. Formulae for its misclosure are ±24mm√k, where ‘k’ is the total distance covered in kilometers.
  • Leveling must be observed at every 25m intervals on the centre line and at 3,3m (6m) intervals on both sides of the centre line for the cross sectioning. Edges of drainage at both sides should be heightened.
  • Fixing of relevant features to enhance assessment and necessary composition for good interpretation of plan.
  • Astronomical observations at the longest distance traverse line.
  • Setting out curve by using deflection angle method within third other survey.
  • The accuracy of the project must fall within the order of the project.

1.5 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

The entire project covered the following:-

  • Reconnaissance (both office planning and field reconnaissance).
  • Data acquisition:

(a) Selection of stations.

(b) Traverse (theodolite) angular observation and data recording.

(c) Linear measurement with the aid of Leica TC600 total station.

(d) Spirit leveling of traverse centre line and adjacent sides (longitudinal or    profile and cross sectioning).

(e) Fixing of details by tacheometry method.

(iii)Computations to determine:

(a) Horizontal coordinates (i.e. x and y coordinates)

(b) Vertical coordinates (i.e. z coordinates) by level reduction.

(c) Setting out angles and distance for the curve.

  • Data analysis i.e. comparing result obtained with the required accuracy.
  • Data presentation :
  • Production of horizontal alignment (i.e. plan showing existing features and the propose route).

(b) Production of longitudinal section plan

(c) Production of cross section plan

(d)Project report writing: – This involves writing of detail report in connection with entire project done in conformity with the outline given by the project supervisor.

1.6       PERSONNEL

The underlisted names are the personnel that participated in the execution of this project. They are:

(i)        AWOTOKUN TOLULOPE BUKUNMI             2012/3832(Writer)

(ii)      AJEIGBE JOSEPH OLUSOLA                           2013/4091

(iii)     FAJEMBOLA EMMANUEL  MAYOWA         2013/4164

(iv)     OJO OLAOTAN OLAREWAJU         2013/4232

(v)      AZEEZ MALIK OLALEKAN                            2013/4131

(vi)     OLAJORI JUMOKE RUKAYAT                       2013/4258

(vii)    IYOWU KAYODE ABIDEMI                           2013/4189

(viii)  ADEWUYI TAYO ADEWUMI                       2013/4073

(ix)ADEGBOYEGA TAIWO JOSHUA                   2013/4050

1.7       STUDY AREA

The project site is the route from Oriawo along Ogbomosho road, Oyo to School of Science, Sabo Oyo Town. Atiba local government area, Oyo, Oyo state. It cover approximately 3.000km extent of land. It lies on the latitude 07º 51.137’ 00”, longitude 03° 57.46’ 00” and latitude 07° 52.505’ 00”, longitude 03° 56.774’ 00”

NIGERIA  
OYO STATE  

OYO STATE  
NIGERIA  

STUDY AREA  
ATIBA L.G.A  

location

Figure 1.1: Study Area diagram

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