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This study assessed the implementation of Nigeria Certificate in Education Hausa language curriculum in northwest geopolitical zone of Nigeria, to determine: the extent of content coverage of NCE Hausa language curriculum, determine the methods utilized by the Hausa language lecturers in the implementation of NCE Hausa language curriculum; determine the availability of instructional materials needed for implementation of Hausa language; assess the adequacy of instructional materials used for teaching NCE Hausa language in Colleges of Education; determine the utilization of instructional materials in implementation of NCE Hausa language in Colleges of Education. Seven research questions and seven hypotheses were raised based on the seven objectives of the study. Population of the study included all teachers and students offering NCE Hausa language in Colleges of Education in Northwest geopolitical zone of Nigeria numbering 196 (one hundred and ninety six) lecturers, and 10,149 (ten thousand one hundred and forty nine) students. Multi-stage sampling techniques were used to select the sample. Stratified random sampling technique was used to sample (6) six out of the 10 (ten) Colleges of Education in northwest geopolitical zone and proportionate stratified sampling was used to draw 360 students (across levels) and 108 Teachers from both Federal and State Colleges of Education respectively. Ex-post facto research design was employed in the study. Structured questionnaire and observation schedule were used to collect data from the respondents. Reliability of the instruments was tested using Cronbach reliability coefficient and the reliability coefficients alpha level of 0.927 and 0.795 were obtained for the staff and students questionnaire respectively. One hundred and eight lecturers and three hundred and fifty eight students‘ respondents filled and returned the questionnaire. The data were analyzed using statistical computation involving frequencies, percentages, chi-square and Mann Whitney test. Chi square statistics were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that, the contents of the NCE Hausa language curriculum were not fully covered in the Colleges of Education in Nigeria; the teaching methods mostly used for the delivery of Hausa language curriculum in Colleges of Education in Nigeria were lecture and project methods. Other methods used at a smaller scale were discussion, demonstration, laboratory, excursion and group work.Instructional materials commonly available in Colleges of Education for the teaching of Hausa language included qualified lecturers, textbooks, auditorium, and lecture theatres/classes. Those not commonly available included language laboratories, projectors, cultural villages, and cultural rooms; the available resource/instructional materials in Colleges of Education were not adequately available for the implementation of Nigeria Certificate in Education Hausa language curriculum. The utilization of many resources/instructional materials such as language laboratories, cultural rooms and villages, videos, tape recorders, projectors, film slide/strips for the implementation of Nigeria Certificate Education Hausa language curriculum in Colleges of Education in Nigeria was low. Based on the findings, it was recommended that; Government should make NCE Hausa language lecturers sufficient in Colleges of Education in Nigeria, Lecturers should use differentiated instructional strategies to address students‘ learning needs, NCE Hausa programme should be subjected to accreditation and reaccreditation, courses should be based on the availability and adequacy of instructional materials andcurriculum developers therefore, should plan practical strategies for improving the present Hausa language curriculum. In conclusion, it is unarguably clear from the findings of this study that non availability and non-utilization of instructional materials hinder effective NCE Hausa language curriculum implementation,
1.1 Background to the Study
Hausa language is one of the best known and widely spoken languages in West Africa. It is classified as a member of the Chadic of the Afro-asiatic family of languages. More recently, the relationship of Hausa to Cushitic, Berber and Semitic (That is Arabic and Hebrew) languages was widely recognized, Greenberg, Kraft & Kirkgreen, Welmars & Newman in Yahaya, (2012). Hausa is largely and predominantly spoken in Nigeria and the Niger republic. Sizeable Hausa speaking communities are also found in Ghana, Cameroun, Chad, Benin republic, Burkina Faso, Togo, Sudan and many of the major cities in west, north and equatorial Africa. It is estimated that eighty to one hundred million people can claim Hausa as a first language with some one hundred million nonnative speakers demonstrating varying degrees of competence in the language, Graham (1996)in Genet (2010). In fact Hausa language is the eleventh most spoken languages in the world
Hausa language is both the vehicle of knowledge, world view and the shortest route to a child‘s conception and comprehension of concepts (NCCE, 2012:65). The policy on language education in Nigeria dates back to the colonial era when the Phelps – Stokes Commission of 1922 emphasized the importance of indigenous languages in the school system. The British Advisory Committee on Native Education in tropical African recommended in 1927, that the native languages should serve as medium of instruction in the lower years of primary education. The Richard’s constitution of 1947 reinstated English as the official language in Nigeria while Hausa was recommended as an additional legislative language in northern Nigeria. In addition, the 1954 constitution recognized domestic and
regional languages. In its article 114 (1), it recommended the use of English as a national official language and as the regional official language in the south, with Hausa as the regional language of the North with the provision that when conflicts in interpretation occurred, documentation done in English language is regarded as validFafunwa, (2004:34) in Adnot & Wyckoff (2015).
In Nigeria, Hausa Language is used as the medium of instruction in the primary as set out by the Federal Government of Nigeria (FRN, 2009:4) thus: ―— the medium of instruction in the primary school is initially the mother tongue (MT) or the language of the immediate community and, at a later stage English”. The National Policy on Education has also made Hausa a mandatory subject for Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSCE) forNational Examination Council (NECO), West African Examination Council(WAEC) and National Business and Technical Examination Board NABTEB along with twoother Nigeria languages (Igbo and Yoruba). Therefore, according to Federal Government of Nigeria, (FRN, 2009:23), it is a core subject and therefore compulsory for senior secondary school students in the northwest geopolitical zone of Nigeria.
The objectives of teaching Hausa language in Secondary schools include among others to;
- enable candidate speak, read and write completely in Hausa and communicate effectively with their neighbors,(b) familiarize them with the sound system and grammatical structures of Hausa, (c)expose candidates to their culture, customs and institutions, and (d) acquaint them with the necessary tools needed for creative writing and appreciation of Hausa language and literature (NERDC, 2011:6).
The philosophy for teacher production in Nigeria is anchored on five objectives of teacher education as enshrined in the Federal Republic of Nigeria, (2009). These are to: produce
highly motivated, conscientious and efficient classroom teachers for all levels of our educational system; encourage further the spirit of enquiry and creativity in teachers; help teachers to fit into the social life of the community and society at large and to enhance their commitment to national objectives; provide teachers with intellectual and professional background adequate for their assignment and to make them adaptable to any changing situation not only in the life of their country but in the wider world;enhance teachers‟ commitment to the teaching profession.These national objectives could be reduced into three major attributes to be achieved in the making of an effective teacherAaronson, Barrow, & Sander (2009). These are the: possession of a body of knowledge and understanding;
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Curriculum implementation is an important segment of teaching learning process. It has to do with the translation of the curriculum into action. This exercise of the curriculum requires personnel, facilities, instructional materials, good administration and teaching methods among other things needed for curriculum implementation. (NCCE, 2012:65). Recentlytheefforts of the governments and Colleges‘ management towards the implementation of the new Hausa curriculum for the Colleges of education have yielded little or no dividends due to issues which are inherent in the implementation of the curriculum. These problems include under funding,non-availability of instructional materials, inadequate classrooms, obsolete instructional materials and non-utilizationof teaching and learning facilities, lack of qualified teachers/lectures, amongst others. This resulted producing of half-baked NCE teachers and public noticed and expressed concern on the competency of teachers trained to teach Hausa language in secondary schools. And this in turnwill affect not only Hausa language education will no doubt hamper the educational development in the country. This prompted the researcher to undertake the study.The study therefore, takes a critical look at the challenges of implementing the new Hausa languages curriculum in
Colleges of Education in the north-west zone of Nigeria which comprises of Kaduna, Katsina, Kano, Jigawa, Sokoto, Zamfara and Kebbi State.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study was set to achieve the followingobjectives to:
- examine the extent to which Hausa language curriculum is being implemented in Colleges of Education in Nigeria.
- determine the methods utilized by the Hausa language lecturers in delivering of
Hausa language curriculum in Colleges of Education in Nigeria. 3investigate the availability of instructional materials for the implementation of NigeriaCertificate of Education Hausalanguage curriculum in Colleges in Nigeria
- assess the adequacy of instructional materials for the implementation of Hausa languagecurriculum in Colleges of Education in Nigeria.
- determinethe utilization of instructionalmaterials by the Hausa languagelecturers in Colleges of Education in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
The study soughtto answer the following research questions:
- To what extent is Hausa language curriculum in Colleges of Education in Nigeria being implemented?
- What are the methods utilized by the Hausa language lecturers in the delivery of Hausa language curriculumin Colleges of Education in Nigeria?
- To what extent are the required instructional materials available for the implementation of Hausa language curriculum in the Colleges of Education in the Nigeria?
- Howadequate are the instructional materials for the implementation of Hausa language curriculum in Colleges of education in Nigeria?
- To what extent are the available instructional materialsfor implementation of Hausalanguage curriculum in the Colleges of Education in Nigeriautilized?
To guide the conduct of this study, the following hypotheses were formulated;
- There is no significant difference in the responses of respondents (students and lecturers)on the extentof implementation of Hausa language curriculum in Colleges of Education in Nigeria
- There is no significant difference in the responses of the respondents on the strategies utilized by the Hausa language lecturers in the implementation of Hausa language curriculum in Colleges of Education in Nigeria.
- There is no significant difference in the responses of the respondents on the availability of instructional materials for the implementation of Hausa language curriculum in Colleges of Education in Nigeria.
- There is no significant difference in the responses of the respondents on the adequacy of instructional materials for the implementation of Hausa language curriculum in Colleges of Education in Nigeria.
- There is no significant difference in the responses of the respondents on the utilization of instructional materials for implementation of Hausa language
curriculum in Colleges of Education in Nigeria.
1.7 Significance of the Study
This study provides detailed information about the implementation process of new Hausa curriculum in Colleges of Education in Nigeria. The beneficiaries of the research include;
Teachers, stakeholders in education, Federal and State Ministries of Education, Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC), and National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE). Other beneficiaries will include; Curriculum Planners, College managements (Provost, Deans and Head of Departments), the nation, Researchers as well as the community or the society in general
To teachers, it will help to visualize how curriculum developers‘ decisions are interpreted and practiced by teachers/lectures in classrooms. The rich information/literatures collected through the survey questionnaire willhelp teachers/lecturers to identify the process of implementation. In turn, what does or does not get implemented in the curriculum can be determined and the reasons for the differences between intended and implemented Hausa Languagecurriculum can be recognized.
The findings will also help to identify the practical problems faced by teachers/lectures in implementing Hausa Language curriculum. When taken into consideration, the results of this study will help teachers/lectures to improve their performance and instructional practices, and can be used as a reference study in Hausa Language teaching.
To stakeholders in education, this valuable information in turn can help decision maker/stakeholders at colleges and national levels to develop better designed curriculum materials and make further progress in the Hausa language curriculum design.Policy makers in education would find the results useful as they would have first-hand information about the extent to which NCE Minimum Standards for languages (Hausa)(2012) are achieving the purpose for which they was designed. This would in turn help them make functional and rational decisions on better way of implementing the curriculum, as well as, make revision as necessary as possible in the NCE Minimum Standards.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study examined the implementation of Hausa Language curriculum in Federal and States Colleges of Education. It covered Colleges of Education (COEs) in the North-west Geopolitical zone, Nigeria. The states in the zone include Kaduna, Katsina, Kano, Jigawa, Sokoto, Zamfara and Kebbi. Students and lecturers in the Colleges of Education in those states were the target population of the study. In addition, the following key variables were covered: status of Hausa curriculum implementation in Colleges of Education, strategies adopted in the implementation of the curriculum, students and lecturers‘ perception on the Hausa language curriculum implementation, students learning outcomes in terms of academic achievements and obstacles to effective implementation of Hausa language curriculum in Colleges of Education in Nigeria with a particular emphasis to north-west geopolitical zone.