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          DESCRIPTION OF FEASIBILITY STUDY OF TILAPIA

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                                                                  INTRODUCTION

This assessment is on description of feasibility study of Tilapia fish. A feasibility study here demonstrates the biological characteristics and viability of tilapia. Biotechnical feasibility involves studies on the biology of the selected species, engineering design and other technical aspects. Economic feasibility deals with the aspects of available capital, projected income, pay back and market surveys. Tilapia is from the family of Cichlidae, which is an African freshwater fish with over 100 species. Tilapia is a popular food fish species with great aquaculture potentials in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. They are very prominent in the ecology of tropical waters as well as in the resources of their aquatic systems (Owusi-Frimpong et al.2005) Culturing of Tilapia boosts the source of fish protein in many countries of the world and the consumption of Tilapia in both the developing and industrialized countries has increased tremendously. There has been an increasing interest in tilapia culture and it has been transplanted and stocked into waters of most countries of the World (Balarin and Hatton, 1979, Eknath et.al.,1993).

The species of Tilapia ranges from Tilapia. zilli, Tilapia. rendalli, Tilapia. tholloni, Tilapia. Congica, and Tilapia guineensis etc. According to a research on Tilapia conducted by (Fagbuaro Omotayo, 2015), Tilapia zillii and Tilapia guineensis were among the species of Cichliidae discovered in water reservoirs in Nigeria. Tilapia, zillii has many attributes that make it suitable for culture. Among these are its general hardiness, high tolerance to adverse environmental conditions and overcrowding, its ability to withstand low oxygen and a wide range of salinity concentrations and resistance to diseases. Tilapia is able to survive and grow on a wide range of natural and artificial feeds, converts food efficiently, grows relatively fast, has a high yield potential and is accepted by a wide range of consumers. Furthermore, tilapia can be grown in a variety of culture systems ranging from simple systems with little infrastructure to more intensive and complex systems (Ridha, 2006).

Tilapia guineensis commonly known as (Dumeril) is a typical sub-strate spawner that is very common in the brackish water zone of Nigeria and most common in the Niger Delta region. There is an increasing interest in this fish for aquaculture purposes, particularly in the areas of high or variable salinities, characteristic of the estuaries and extensive lagoon. In this habitat, other species more traditionally used in ‘tilapia’ culture are either not locally available (0reochromis mossambicus) or do not tolerate the prevailing saline conditions (O. niloticus) (Campbell1987). Attempts to raise (T. guineensis) fish both on an experimental and production basis by researchers and fish farmers have indicated some problems exist which are not found with the culture of other tilapia species. Hence, the need to intensify feasibility study on the growth performance and feed digestibility of this special species of Tilapia.

Identification of Tilapia

The usual coloration of Tilapia guineensis is shiny, dark greenish yellow on the back and flanks becoming lighter in shade near the abdomen. The lower lip is white. The ventral part is usually white although in some specimens black and red coloration appears. All scales on the flanks have a black spot at the base. The anal fin is grey and the ventral fins are grey or black and marked by a white line in the anterior edge. The dorsal fin is gray or transparent with the black “tilapia” mark very prominent. The tail is bluish grey and banded with lighter colored spots and a distinctly shaded upper and lower portion.

Tilapia guineensis is closely related to Tilapia zilli reasons for studying the two species in this assessment. Tilapia guineensis is most easily differentiated from Tilapia zilli by the mean number of spines in the dorsal fin (Tilapia zilli = 15; Tilapia guineensis = 16) and coloration (Tilapia zilli has two horizontal dark bands, Tilapia guineensis does not).

Tilapia guineensis is geographically separated from other similar species (Tilapia zilli, Tilapia rendalli, Tilapia tholloni, Tilapia congica) and that they exclude each other. Tilapia guineensis is found in the coastal waters of Africa.

 Reproduction of Tilapia

Tilapia guineensis is a typical substratum spawner. There is a firm pair bonding with prolonged association, at least during one breeding cycle. The pair establishes a territory and both defend it. Inside the territory is a spawning nest. The nest consists of a series of holes, the form and dimensions varying considerably depending on the nature of the substrate and the size of the individual fish. In sandy clay soils, a typical nest will be place in the front of a large basin, diameter 50 cm, with a series of holes leading from the bottom, each holes 10 to 15 cm in diameter with a maximum recorded depth of 1 meter (Legendre, 1983). It is not known if one or both of the sexes take part in building the nest.

 

 

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