A TERM PAPER ON THE ROLE OF GIS ON SUSTAINABLE EXPLOITATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND ITS CONSERVATION
Most aspects of land resources magenta require information on the current extent of features and that was in which their distribution has changed has changed in the past such information can be collected by ground survey and /or the use of aerial survey and satellite imagery. By capturing these spatial data on a computer based geographical information system and overlaying different data sets the land resource planner and manager have the capability to analyse changes in the distribution of features this is important for assessing the impact of previous planning decisions and for carrying out inventories of existing procedures.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Abstract – – – – – – – – – i
Table of Content – – – – – – – – ii
Introduction – – – – – – – – 1
The meaning of GIS – – – – – – – 3
The Benefits of GIS – – – – – – – 4
Exploitation of Natural Resources and its conversation – 6
Forms of Natural Resources and Exploitation – – – 7
Conservation of Natural Resources – – – – 13
The Role of GIS on Sustainable – – – – – 14
GIS and Preservation and use of Natural Resources – – 16
Conclusion – – – – – – – – 17
Recommendation – – – – – – – 18
References – – – – – – – – 19
Natural resources play a critical role in the welfare of developing countries. For many developing countries, natural resources are the base upon which all life depends. However, many developing counties have experienced and continue to experience severe degradation of their natural resources. Expansion in technology, population and economic activities have led to accelerated and unsustainable exploitation and depletion of natural resources. This degradation, especially of forest cover has led o diminishing soil fertility, soil erosion, increase severity of the impact of drought and the further reduction in the ability to produce food and other biological resources demanded by the human and animal population.
Nigeria is not an exception with reference to these problems. It is facing serious land and environment degradation due to increasing anthropogenic pressure on its natural resources. The vast natural resources found in Nigeria have been important to its economy and its people; however, their exploitation has resulted in severe land and environmental degradation in many parts of the country. To address these problems, the Nigerian government adopted a national conversation strategy in 1998 through the federal environmental protection agency of 1988 (FEPA ACT) and the subsequent environment impact assessment act of 1992 (EIA Act) anchored by the ministry stipulated in the act are to identify environmental problems and issues, to analyse their causes and to recommend appropriate action for their resolution. Currently, this act forms the policy framework for environmental intervention and management.
In many African countries, the desire to meet the livelihood needs of people has led to unsound exploitation of natural resources, improved natural resource management to mitigate environmental problems is a major task confronting planners and decision makers at all levels. In recent years, there has arisen an increased awareness and understanding of the importance of Geographic Information service (GIS) and its application to support decision-making in natural resources and landscape management in Nigeria and other countries of Africa. Many organisations at natural, regional and district levels are training staff who will be capable of providing technical services/steps for solving typical application problems in nature resources management.
THE MEANING OF GIS
GIS is an abbreviation for Geographic information system a system for storing and manipulating geographical information on computer. It enables us visualize, questions, analyse interpreted, and trends.
GIS integrates hardware, software, and data for capturing, managing, analysing, and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information. It provides help in answering questions and solving problems by cooking at your data in a way that is quickly understand and easily shared. It can be integrated into any enterprise information system framework. It is attached to many operations and has many applications related to engineering, planning, management, transport/logistics, insurance, telecommunications, and business. For this reason, GIS and location intelligence application can be the foundation for many location-enabled services that rely on analysis, visualization and dissemination of results for collaborative decision making.
Any variable that can be referenced using a GIIS locations or extents in earth space time may be recorded as sate/times of occurrence, and X, Y, and z coordinates representing longitude, latitude and evaluation, respectively. These GIS coordinates may represent other quantified system of temporal-spatial reference. Related by accurate spatial information and incredible variety of real world and projected past of future data can be analyzed, interpreted and represented to facilitate education and decision.
THE BENEFITS OF GIS
GIS benefits organisations of all sizes in almost every industry. There is a growing awareness of the economic and strategy value of GIS. The benefits of GIS generally fall into five basic categories:
- Cost savings and increased efficiency;
- Better decision making;
- Improved communication
- Better record keeping
- Managing geographically
- Map where things are
- Map quantities
- Find what is inside
- Find what is nearby
- Map change.