TABLE OF CONTENT
Background of the study
Statement of problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Definition of terms
Administration of questionnaire
Method of data collection
Reliability and validity of instrument
Method of data analysis
Presentation and analysis of data
Responses made by school heads
Responses made by teachers
Summary of finding
- Background of the study
Education in Nigeria is an instrument for excellence for affecting national development. It has witnessed active participation by non-governmental agencies, communities and individual as well as governmental intervention. It is therefore important for the nation to fish out a clear term and objectives that underline it’s involvement in education.
Quality education is the greatest legacy any country can bequeath to its citizens. To ensure quality education, government has tried to provide the National Policy on Education that addresses the needs and aspirations of the people. The need for National Policy on Education arose as a result of general dissatisfaction of the people with the educational system inherited from the colonial masters. The system failed to a large extent to support, growth and development of the nation. It became very necessary for the convocation of 1969 conference to evolve educational system that would cater for the needs of the people. With the subsequent seminars and workshops the National Policy on Education emerged. The National Policy on Education is the document of the government that contains information about the philosophy and goals of all levels of education in the educational system. It also contains the responsibilities of both the government and the stakeholders in the provision of education services. The document was first published in 1977 and revised in 1981, 1988 and 2004 (FRN, 2004).
The quest to provide education services for quality education, made the international community to hold world conference on Education for All (EFA) in Jomtien in 1990 and subsequently at Daker in 2000 (Obanya, 2000). In the conference, it was agreed on, to expand and improve comprehensive early childhood education among others by the year 2015 by all participants (Maduewesi, 2006).
The government responded to the demand of EFA by including in the National Policy on Education the establishment of pre-primary section in the existing public primary schools (F.R.N., 2004). Pre-primary education is the education given in an education institution to children prior to their entering the primary schools. It includes the crèche (0 – 2) years, nursery (3 – 4) years, and kindergarten (4 – 5) years (FRN, 2004). The present study focuses on the nursery schools. It is obvious that children who attend good nursery school will have better opportunity to transit easily to primary school and equally respond better to the demands of this level of education. This is because according to Carnage Task Force on meeting the needs of children (1999), children raised in a stimulating environment such as good school and are provided with good nutrition have measurable better brain functioning. Good environment and food affect not only the number of brain cells and the number of connection among them but also the ways these connections are fixed. The process of connecting the brain cells is guided to a large extent by the child’s sensory experiences of the world (Ezema, 2009). Early Childhood education will promote the holistic development of the children and will equip them with knowledge, skills and competencies needed to meet the demands of everyday life.
The need for a National Policy on Education came about as a result of the 1969 national curriculum conference which was attended by a cross section of Nigerians. The conference was a culmination of expressions of general dissatisfaction with the existing educational system which had become irrelevant to national needs, aspiration and goals.
The National Policy on Education (NPE) special ties six years of primary school from children ranging from ages 6 to 11 years old.
The existentialist Nigeria education thought seeks to distinguish between the British idealism which breaks an elicit society and the America pragmatism which nature a nation on practical men. The Nigeria philosophy gave direction and energy to the national conference curriculum development sponsored by the Nigeria educational research council in 1969 that conference was a momentous landmark in the history of educational development in Nigeria. It was a prevailing practice in most of all institutions of learning and evaluation of the students performance in one final examination was in tenable fraught with psychological paradoxes and expensive in time and money, dangerous and frustrating. The performance at the school certificate, students in this country then were totally poor. This could be seen from the results of school certificate examination between 1974 and 1977. The percentage passes stand as follows; June 1974-51%, June 1975-47.4% % and June 1976- 43%. The system of a final examination at the end of the year secondary school course by an external examining body as West Africa Examination council is unrealistic. This does not encourage the cultivation of study habit student fizzle away their variable period of four years, rise from their lethargy and stop in the fifth and face belatedly to the labour of completing tasks long postponed as the fathom of the final examination looms before them. For the leisure, the fear of failure at the end of gruesome five years compelled cramming, without ply, relaxation in the crucial final month. This situation breeds high casualty rates for students and teacher, the system breeds unsystematic and irregular application to duty and more, it breeds the tendency to dishonestly since the feeding is to ensure success at all cost and by all means fat or foul. The answer to this lies in continuous and cumulative assessment and evaluation. This spreads out evenly throughout the year and eliminates for the final onslaught. This rates out the central examining bodies and reduces the influence in a final examination.
- Statement of problem
One of the functions of a school is the certification of the individual learner under it’s embrace. To effectively carry out this role, assessment of one kind or the other is a prerequisite. The Nigeria’s National Policy on Education (NPE) recommended the use of continuous assessment for taking summative decisions on students level of attainment at the end of any level of schooling. This qualitative study is an attempt at evaluating continuous assessment practices in selected Nigerian primary schools. Over the years, the gap between educational policies and goal attainment due to inadequate implementation of these policies has become of great concern.
The assigning of teachers to specific classes to teach all the subjects is a problem. It will definitely be burdensome for one teacher to do all the setting and marking of the expected continuous assessment testing papers, in addition to construction of teaching and assessment aids, observe all the children record and collate the results. Added to this is the problem of large classes. Hence marking of tests, assignments and class exercises becomes an arduous task. This has led even dedicated teachers to such practices as arbitrary assignment of scores, use of examination scores to obtain continuous assessment.
- Objective of the study
The main objective of the study is an assessment on the implementation of the national policy on education with specific reference to continous assessment in post-primary schools in Edo state. However, for the successful completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following sub-objective:
(i) To ascertain the educational achievements in line with educational national policy in post-primary schools in Edo state.
(ii) To determine the factors or constraints that have made the implementation of educational policy difficult in post-primary schools in Edo state.
(iii) To verify the implications of poor implementation of educational policy in post-primary schools in Edo state.
(iv) To determine the strategies that can be adopted to ensure better policy implementation.
- Research question
For the successful completion of the study, the following research question were formulated:
(i) How can the educational achievements in line with educational national policy in post-primary schools in Edo state be ascertained?
(ii) What are the factors or constraints that have made the implementation of educational policy difficult in post-primary schools in Edo state?
(iii) How can the implications of poor implementation of educational policy in post-primary schools in Edo state be verified?
(iv) How can the strategies that can be adopted to ensure better policy implementation be determined?
- Significance of the study
It is perceived that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance on the implementation of the national policy on education, in view of her importance of appropriation by addressing the state’s problem both educationally and socially, the study will also be of great importance to the post-primary school teachers that handles different subjects of their fields, the study will also be of great importance to researchers who intend to carry out a study on a similar topic and finally the study will be of great importance to academia’s as it will add to the pool of knowledge.
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
The scope of the study is an assessment on the implementation of the national policyon education with specific reference to continous assessment in post-primary in Edo state. However, the study has some constrained and limitations which are:
(a)Availability of research material: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.
(b)Time: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
(c)Finance: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.
- Definition of terms
Assessment is the process of gathering and discussing information from multiple and diverse sources in order to develop a deep understanding of what students know, understand and can do with their knowledge as a result of their educational experiences.
It is the process of putting a decision or plan into effect.
It is a course or principle of action adopted or proposed by an organization or individual.
Education is the process of facilitating learning or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs and habits.
The action of mentioning or alluding to something.
Continuous assessment is the educational policy in which students are examined continuously over most of the duration of their education, the results of which are taken into account after leaving school.
A school is an institution designed for the teaching of students (or pupils) under the direction of teachers.
A school environment is a school that has appropriate facilities, well-managed classrooms available school based health supports and a clear, fair disciplinary policy. It also includes the physical and aesthetic surroundings and the safety, security, climate and culture of the school.