AN EVALUATION OF LEADERSHIP STYLES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE
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The theme of the study is an evaluation of leadership style and its effects on employee’s attitude (a case study of Nike Lake Resort Hotel, Enugu). Inadequate information and misconceptions about leadership styles that is appropriate in organizational structure parse have led to several ugly consequences strike actions, creation of informal group etc. In order to achieve the above aims, research questions were used. The findings of the researcher were presented in tabular form and analyzed using simple percentages. The total population for the study is 200 staff of Nike Lake Resort Hotel in Enugu State. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up operation managers, waiters, bartenders and cooks were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies.
- Background of the study
Leadership is an area of managerial responsibility that is needed to develop plans, set objectives that help the organization cope with the future and to meet the demands of the environment. The technical, economic, social and political characteristics of organization bring about continuing need for the innovation, creativity and imagination of a leader. Leadership ability therefore is a valuable skill and those who possess or have it reap high rewards. The universal dearth of effective leaders causes organization to scout constantly for them and fosters development and better utilization of existing leadership. Leadership is the ability of an individual to influence others to work beyond ordinary level to achieve a goal or an objective. Leadership is generally defined as influence, the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly towards the achievement of group goals. To lead is to guide conduct and direct. Leaders act t o help a group achieve objectives with maximum application of its capabilities. They do not stand behind a group to prod; they place themselves before the group as to facilitate progress and inspire the group to accomplish organizational goals.A pertinent example is that of the orchestra leader, whose function is to produce coordinated sound and correct tempo through integrated effort of the instrumentalist. Leadership has an effect on the performance of any organization. It affects both the employees attitude and productivity of the organization. Employees at all levels tend to evaluate the jobs and their organizations according to the kind of leadership behaviour their bosses exhibit, for a leader to lead effectively and efficiently he needs to understand his followers and the situation in t he organization. The situational variably which influences the effectiveness of a followers and the task organizational climate power available to the leader and leader – follower relationship. Basically, people tend to follow those they see as a means of satisfying their needs. The task of a leader is to encourage people to contribute effectively and willingly towards the accomplishment of enterprise goal, and to satisfy their own needs in the process. The leader must always be aware of the human problems a as sensitivity towards the hopes and aspirations of those whom he supervised and a capacity for analysis of emotional forces that motivate their conduct, if this is not achieved the projects entrusted to him will not work out, no matter how often wages are raised. The survival of every organization depends on the performance of its leader. He moves the group within the constraints of its maximum compatibilities to attain certain specified objectives. He handles people, motivate them to work with them to do. In order not to lose him identity he takes his place before the group as he inspires the group to accomplish organizational objective. In fact he is an architect of the performance, and hence tries to increase the moral of his employees always. Research findings however suggest that leadership effectiveness is not depended on the source of power alone but with situational factors, climate or any particular style. From the foregoing, the question is that, how effective is the leadership style in bringing about a good reaction o employees towards organization, work and their environment. It is the aim of the research to give due to the question
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
One of the most researchers and lest understood variables of the management process is leadership. For centuries scholars have been speculating on the nature of leadership to adopt. Only in the recent years have researchers conducted systematic investigations that have yielded useful insights into dimensions of leading. Even with this, there is still an increasing difficulty to establish the fact that leaders achieve the desired result as and when is need. The prosperity, if not the survival of any organization depends on the performance of its leader and their styles. The quality of leadership style shapes the behaviour of their employees at all levels tend to evaluate their job and their organization according to the kind of leadership behaviour their bosses exhibit. Theoretically, in appropriate usage of some style result to workers negative attitude to work, absenteeism, conflict, unrest and confrontation. All these are rampant in most of the organization today. This research work aims at evaluating the type of leadership in existence and why they vary in their method of operation. The work also intends to find out whether leaders recognize their position in the organizational set of and if they do, to what extent do they exercise their leadership power and style to exhibit positive attitude from the employees for an increased productivity. Some leadership styles in themselves are retrogressive and generate ill-feelings among employees. Most leaders always think that all employees should be treated the same but each individual background, orientation education largely determine the best of leadership with which they could be led. On the whole the research will critically assess the reaction of employees to the styles used by their leaders.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
Leadership role is said to be very useful tool in the life of an organization which has influence on both employee’s attitude and organization’s productivity. In spite of these fact leaders they seem to over-look its importance. The purpose of this research therefore is to evaluate and have in depth knowledge of the leadership styles practiced in the organization selected and their effects on employee’s attitude.
This evaluation will be done by the following ways to:
- Determine whether the type of styles used by the leaders in
the organization affect employees.
- Determine the problems facing the terms of these leadership
iii. Recommend possible solution to the problems identified.
Iv ascertain the relationship between leadership style and employee performance
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: type of styles used by the leaders in the organization does not affect employees.
H1: type of styles used by the leaders in the organization affect employees.
H02: there is no relationship between leadership style and employee performance
H2: there is relationship between leadership style and employee performance
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The existence of a good leadership style in any organization is crucial and will ultimately affect everybody either directly or indirectly. This study will be of greater significance to the management team of various organizations and that of Nike Lake Resort Hotel, Limited in particular. This research work will also be helpful to future researchers as reference purpose or academics literature and in particular to students of management as well.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This research is meant to cover much organization in Enugu metropolis, but because it is not easy for the researcher to visit all the organizations due to certain constraints such as lack of time and money. The study has been limited to one selected organization which is the case study – Nike Lake Resort Hotel. It is critical analysis and evaluation of leadership style and effects on employee’s attitude in the company with regards to effective and efficient management and productivity. In this case, therefore many things t o investigate on by the researcher namely, the concept of leadership, nature of leadership, leadership as a process of management, the concept of power as it relates to leadership, leadership style and finally approaches to leadership theories.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
In order to facilitate effective understanding of the content of this study, the following important terms have been defined.
The art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willing toward achievement of group goals.
This is a method of appraising the value of a particular thing in the course of study. It is a situation where the authenticity of study is examined and logical conclusion drawn.
This refers to the end target set to be achieved by the organization in the course of operation
These are various approaches leaders adopt in dealing with subordinates for accomplishing the set objectives of the organization.
This means a purposeful social unit. It is defined establishment or corporate entity public, private or services or produce goods and set-up to render services or produce goods and to carry out more precisely policies and programmes inspired.
This is the power to effect subordinates characters, beliefs or action through example, fear or admiration with or without forces.
This refers to one who applies sanctions that requires or prohibits the commission of an act.
Employees is a general term referring to one who work for wage and salary and perform services for an employer.
Attitude is referred to as manner of placing or holding the body and way of feeling, thinking or behaving.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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