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APPLICATION OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA

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  TABLE OF CONTENTS  
Title Page i
Declaration ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgements v
Abstract vi
Table of Contents vii
List of Tables x
List of Abbreviations xiii
Operational Definition of Terms xiv
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION  
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 5
1.3 Objectives of the Study 7
1.4 Research Questions 7
1.5 Research Hypotheses 8
1.6 Basic Assumptions 9
1.7 Significance of the Study 10
1.8 Scope of the Study 12
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE  
2.1 Introduction 13
2.2 Conceptual Framework 14
2.2.1 Classroom Management 15
2.2.2 Time Management 17
2.2.3 Discipline 18
2.2.4 Reward 20
  vii  

 

2.2.5 Classroom Arrangement 21
2.2.6 Punishment 23
2.2.7 Non-verbal Communication 26
2.2.8 Group Participation 27
2.2.9 Management Techniques 30
2.3 Theoretical Framework 32
2.4 Techniques of Classroom Management 36
2.4.1 Techniques of Time Management 38
2.4.2 Techniques of Discipline 43
2.4.3 Techniques of Reward 44
2.4.4 Techniques of Classroom Arrangement 48
2.4.5 Techniques of Punishment 53
2.4.6 Techniques of Non-verbal Communication 63
2.4.7 Techniques of Group Participation 65
2.5 Teachers Role in Classroom Management 71
2.5.1 Knowledge and Behaviour of Teachers in Classroom Management 74
2.5.2 Techniques Teachers Need to Apply in Classroom Management 77
2.6 Empirical Studies 79
2.7 Summary 83
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY  
3.1 Introduction 84
3.2 Research Design 84
3.3 Population of the Study 84
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques 85
3.5 Instrumentation 86
3.5.1 Validity of the Instrument 86

 

viii

 

3.5.2 Pilot Test 87
3.5.3 Reliability of the Instrument 87
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection 87
3.7 Procedure for Data Analysis 88
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  
4.1 Introduction 89
4.2 Analysis of Bio-data Variables 89
4.3 Answers to Research Questions 92
4.4 Hypotheses Testing 106
4.5 Summary of Hypotheses Testing 115
4.6 Summary of Major Findings 115
4.7 Discussions of Findings 116
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary 120
5.2 Conclusion 122
5.3 Recommendations 123
5.4 Suggestions for Further Studies 124
  References 125
  Appendix 134
LIST OF TABLES  
Table 1: Population Distribution 85
Table 2: Sample of the Study 86
Table 3: Status of the Respondents 89
Table 4: Gender of the Respondents 90
Table 5: Age of the Respondents 90
Table 6: Marital Status of the Respondents 90
Table 7: Highest Educational Qualification 91
Table 8: Years of Experience 91
Table 9: School Location 92
Table 10: Descriptive statistics on the application of time management  
during classroom management in secondary schools in Oyun Local  
Government Area of Kwara State 93
Table 11: Descriptive statistics on the application of reward  
during classroom management in secondary schools in Oyun Local  
Government Area of Kwara State 95
Table 12: Descriptive statstics on the application of punishmemnt  
during classroom management in secondary schools in Oyun Local  
Government Area of Kwara State 97
Table 13: Descriptive statistics on the application of discipline  
during classroom management in secondary schools in Oyun Local  
Government Area of Kwara State 99
Table 14: Descriptive statistics on students group participation during  
Classroom management in secondary schools in Oyun Local  
Government Area of Kwara State 101
Table 15: Descriptive statistics on class arrangement during classroom  
management in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of  
Kwara State 103
Table 16: Descriptive statistics on the use of non-verbal communication  
during classroom management in secondary schools in Oyun Local  

 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

 

ADHD Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder CMT Classroom Management Technique ISS In-School Suspension L2 Second Language

OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

 

OSS    Out-of-School Suspension

 

SGB    School Governing Body

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

 

The following are the operational definition of the key terms used in this research:

 

Class Arrangement is the act of defining and clarifying the physical space of the classroom to enables students anticipate in the activity that will be held in each area.

 

Discipline: Training expected to produce a specific character of pattern of behaviour especially training that produces moral or mental improvement.

 

Management: The act of being or charge of something in order to cope with the situation and succeed, It is also the total utilization of both human and material resources in a cooperative effort, to achieve a set goal

 

Punishment: This is an action taken against someone for deviation from the schools rules or codes of conduct.

 

Reward: A thing that you are given because you have done something good.

 

Students Group Participation means keeping students busy and on task while they are working together.

 

Technique: A practical skill, and applied to a particular task.

 

Time management is the ability to produce and follow a schedule, meet deadlines, prioritize and minimize distractions and unimportant tasks.

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

1.1         Background to the Study

 

Classroom is the immediate management environment for formal knowledge acquisition. It is a shelter for both teachers and learners so as to engage in educative activities. Classroom is made up of the teacher, the learners, learning equipment and the environment. Kimberly (2001) stated the five characteristics of a classroom as security, open communication, mutual likeness, shared goals and connectedness. Management on the other hand, can be seen as the process of designing and maintaining any setting in which people work in groups for the purpose of accomplishing predetermined goals. The idea of any setting equally indicates that management is applicable to all establishments which do not exonerate educational setting.

 

Management involves the act of running or controlling or skill of dealing with people or situations in any way (Adeyemo, 2012). Also, management is defined as a method where a group of people at the highest level of organization plan, organize, communicate, coordinate, control and direct the actions and activities of people who work for the organization toward the achievement of organizational objectives (Loomiz, 1989 in Adeyemo, 2012). Some people believe that education and management are incompatible; management is seen as process that happens in industry but not in education. The management role of a teacher therefore is not the same as that of an accountant or of a bank manager, but the management role is certainly an institution that has specific objectives and a school is not an exception. In order to achieve its aims, a school has to have objectives, and to achieve these objectives, the various people with responsibilities in the school especially in a classroom have to plan, organize and lead.

Classroom management is the term used by teachers to describe the process of ensuring that classroom lessons run smoothly despite disruptive behaviour by students. The term also implies the prevention of disruptive behaviour. It is possibly the most difficult aspect of teaching for many teachers; indeed experienced problems in this area cause some to leave teaching. Classroom management is a complex set of articulate behaviour which the teacher uses to establish and maintain conditions to enable learners achieve instructional objectives efficiently. Brown (1995) looked at classroom management as a process involving the organization of certain academic tasks which are essential for effective teaching and learning in a specific set up. Classroom management first became a popular topic in education during the 1970 and 1980 (Tavares, 1996 & Butchart, 1995). The focus in these early years was primarily on making the classroom safe and establishing behaviour management, used to control and shape students behaviour to conform to school rules by the classroom teacher. Classroom management using an authoritarian or punitive approach could repress disorderly behaviour, but it might not foster student‘s growth or allow the acquisition of more sophisticated modes of learning, such as critical thinking and reflection (Jones, 1995).

1.2     Statement of the Problem

 

The purpose of good classroom management in the realization of the objectives of education cannot be over emphasized. As student often exhibits some deviant behaviour in the classroom, which include; noise making, chewing gum, passing notes, using cell phones in class, cheating during examinations or test, copying or passing a different note during lesson, jesting, sleeping during lessons, stealing, eating during lessons, fighting, rudeness to teachers, breaking school rules, distracting others and the likes. All these and even more could constitute management problems that require effective management techniques to handle them so as to achieve educational objectives (Osakwe, 2014). Likewise, communication is a very important tool to help foster good classroom atmosphere and relations (Adeyemo, 2012). Students relate very well and openly with teachers they have formed a connection with through good communication. Hence, the teacher should not be seen as a dictator, because adolescents/teenagers easily rebel against such. A teacher should be someone reliable, trustworthy, approachable, open and respected. But these attributes are lacking in our teachers, which makes classroom management more difficult in Nigerian schools (Adeyemo, 2012). Good interpersonal relationship, will lead to easier classroom management and help achieve educational objectives at the long run.

 

Some parents in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State show negative attention to their children’s education and this makes it difficult for teachers to do their work effectively. This is because some classroom management techniques are taken, some parents do not take it in good faith. Parents are rather concerned with their children learning a trade, farming or even sending them to bigger cities to get jobs. Another problem that informs this study is the issue of classroom arrangement.

1.3     Objectives of the Study

 

This study was carried out with the objectives to:

 

  1. examine the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on the application of time management in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State;

 

  1. investigate the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on the application of reward in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State;

 

  1. explore the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on the application of punishment in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State;

 

  1. determine the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on the application of discipline in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State;

 

  1. find out the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on group participation in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State;

 

  1. determine the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on the application of classroom arranagement in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State; and

 

  1. assess the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on application use of non-verbal communication in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State.

 

1.4         Research Questions

 

The following research questions were raised to guide the conduct of this study:

 

  1. What are the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on the application of time management during classroom management in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State?
    1. What are the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on the application of reward during classroom management in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State?

     

    1. What are the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on the application of punishment during classroom management in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State?

     

    1. What are the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on the application of discipline in classroom management in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State?

     

    1. What are the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on students group participation in classroom management in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State?

     

    1. What are the opinions of principals, teachers and inspectors on the classroom arrangement in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State?

     

    1. What are the opinions of principals, inspectors and teachers on non-verbal communication in classroom management in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State?

     

    1.5         Research Hypotheses

     

    The following research hypotheses were formulated for the study:

     

    H01:    There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers and inspectors on the application of time management in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State.

    H02:    There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers and inspectors on the application of reward in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State.

     

    H03:    There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers and inspectors on the application of punishment in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State.

     

    H04:    There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers and inspector on the application of discipline in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State.

     

    H05:    There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers and inspectors on students‘ group participation in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State.

     

    H06:    There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers and inspectors on class arrangement in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State.

     

    H07:    There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers and inspectors on the use of non-verbal communication in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State.

     

    1.6         Basic Assumptions

     

    For the purpose of this study, the following assumptions were made that:

     

    1. proper application of time management in classroom management is assured to increase students teacher interaction and better students performance in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area, Kwara State.1.7     Significance of the Study

       

      This study is significant because it attempted to study the application of the techniques of classroom management used by teachers in secondary schools in Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State. Therefore, findings from this study showed significance in a number of ways to the teachers, educational planners, Ministry of education, stakeholders and students.

       

      Classroom teachers are known as classroom managers because of their roles in managing learning activities, instructional procedures, the prevailing attitudes, feeling and atmosphere in the classroom. It is hoped that findings from this study would help teachers know the common problems they might likely experience during lessons, and proffer tangible solutions on how to handle such situation.

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