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Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE

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This study sought to evaluate the assessment of resources distribution in public secondary schools in Nigeria, using Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC) as a case study. To achieve this objective, four research questions and two research hypotheses were formulated to guide this study. A structured questionnaire was used as the main instrument to gather data from 30 respondents comprising of principals and teachers from selected public secondary schools in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC). Out of this number, 30 (100%) copies of questionnaire were appropriately completed and returned for data analysis. The data collected from the respondents were analyzed using tables and descriptive statistics to analyze the research questions while Chi-square statistical method was used to test the hypotheses. The findings revealed that resources distribution do impact on secondary school students’ performance in AMAC. Also, there were factors responsible for poor allocation of educational resources to pubic secondary schools in AMAC. It was concluded that educational resources are vital factors that make education system functions smoothly. Some recommendations were made to remedy the challenges associated with poor distribution of resources in public secondary schools in Nigeria.

                                                     CHAPTER ONE


1.1 Background to the Study

Resources are very essential tools in our educational sector. They aid teaching and learning and include everything that provides information to the teachers as well as the learners. Education is one of the leading instruments for promoting economic development as it encompasses some processes individuals go through to help them develop and utilize their potentials (Adeyemi and Adu 2010). Secondary Education is an important sub sector of education in the preparation of human capital for development and provision of life opportunities as it provides a vital link between basic education and the world of work on one hand, and further training on the other (Onsomu et, al, 2006). Resource scarcity remains a major problem to the Nigerian educational sector. The Nigerian education sector has endured consistently declining levels of federal government funding over the last two decades. This calls for effective school systems where school leaders are able to integrate and unify available human and material resources towards reaching set goals.

Resources include all forms of information that are used to promote, encourage, and enhance teaching and learning and learning activities (Akinbobola, 2006). With regards to education, resources means something that can be used to increase or enhance or improve, or implement educational programme. Akpochafo (2003) defines resources to include man, machine, students, materials controlled and coordinated to achieve better teaching. Hofstein and Mamlok-Naaman (2007) categorized resources required for science teaching to include human resources, material resources, library resources, and industrial and science resource centres. In order to ensure sustainable teaching-learning processes in Physics, it is important that human and non-human (materials, physical and financial) resources must be adequately provided.

An effective public secondary school system is characterized by good leadership, neat environment, basic students’ learning rate, internal resource generation and frequent evaluation of learners’ progress (Raptis & Fleming, 2003). Some key characteristics of effective secondary schools include high rate of students’ engagement, performance of activities following laid down patterns and a rate of expectations from staff and students (Owan, Arop, & Agunwa, 2019). However, effective educational system cannot be achieved without educational resources. which play an important role in the achievement of educational goals and objectives.. Educational resources according to Usman (2007) are central to the educational process because they play an important role in the achievement of educational goals and objectives since they facilitate teachers’ work and accelerate learning on the part of the student. Educational resources can be categorized into four groups that is human, material, physical and financial resources (Adeogun and Ofisila, 2008).

Adequate and apposite resources are vital in the administration of a school. The proper management and use of these resources will not only boost the morale of human resources who coordinates other activities in the school system but also ensure the attainment of goals. Meanwhile, shortage or inadequacy of these resources is inimical to goal achievement of school administration. Accessibility of education resources makes school management effective and efficient thereby enhancing the output of the education system. Effective school administration leads to efficient instructional process which will yield a quality output. Agabi (2012) observed that, the resources provided by Government for execution of education projects in Nigeria are inadequate and irregular as highlighted by the frequency of industrial actions in the education sector.  More so, due to the general level of poverty in the country, the contribution of communities and households to educational provision have been negligible. Consequently, the best alternative is prudence in the use of available resources. This is because when a given level of resources is efficiently utilized, more services are provided through balance usage and adequate maintenance of the available facilities than when inefficiency, on-utilization, under-utilization and over utilization abounds.

The need for improve the quality of education in the Nigerian school system has necessitated the need to improve on the educational resources which is expected to positively impact on the public secondary schools; this can only be achieved by effective distribution of the school resources. According to (Ajewole and Okebukola, 2000), a number of factors contribute to student’s poor academic performance in public schools, some of these factors include: lack of available resource materials and poor study habits, teachers ineffectiveness, the teaching method and the type of learning environment available for both the students and the teachers. This implies that resources are necessary inputs in the school system that enables the survival and improvement of educational goals. Resource distribution deals with the extent to which materials, tools and equipment are effectively supplied to public schools. While resource utilization is the process of managing and organizing resources for learning and teaching (Sally, 2010). This study examine the assessment of resources distribution in public secondary schools in Nigeria.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Resource distribution among many public secondary schools in Nigeria seems to be very poor. This is manifested in the poor allocation of funds to the educational sector of Nigeria by the Federal Government and also in the poor quality of products supplied to both primary and secondary schools in the country. These challenges seem to affect the effectiveness prospect of many public secondary schools including the persistent poor performance of secondary school students in both WAEC and JAMB examinations. Many  stakeholders  in FCT have  been  raising  questions  regarding  the  quality  of  schools  these  days,  and  are  pointing accusing  fingers  consequently,  calling  for  government intervention (education (Arop, Owan, & Ekpang, 2018; Owan,  2019). Although efforts  has  been  made  by  government  and  other stakeholders to curb the menace of secondary school system ineffectiveness which is prevalence in the provision of educational resources, such as laboratory, library, classroom, staff rooms, and library facilities; frequent payment of staff salaries;  provision  of  retraining  opportunities  and  supply  of  ICT  gadgets. It was based on this failure that this study was undertaken to shift the paradigm from the highly suspected correlates of poor resources distribution to an area that little or no attention appears to have been paid, which could also affect the effectiveness level of public schools.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main aim of this study is to examine an assessment of resources distribution in public secondary schools in Nigeria in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC). Specifically, the study intends to;

  1. Examine the impact of resources distribution on secondary school students’ performance in AMAC.
  2. Determine the factors responsible for poor allocation of educational resources to pubic secondary schools in AMAC.
  3. Evaluate the availability of educational resources for effective teaching and learning in pubic secondary schools in AMAC.
  4. To proffer solutions to challenges associated with resources distribution in pubic secondary schools in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

To achieve the objective of this study, the following questions are formulated.

  1. Does resources distribution impact on secondary school students’ performance in AMAC?
  2. Are there factors responsible for poor allocation of educational resources to pubic secondary schools in AMAC?
  3. Are there adequate educational resources for effective teaching and learning in pubic secondary schools in AMAC?
  4. What are the remedies to the challenges associated with resources distribution in pubic secondary schools in Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

        The following hypotheses will be tested in the course of the study;

H0: Resources distribution does not impact on secondary school students’ performance in AMAC

H1: Resources distribution do impact on secondary school students’ performance in AMAC.

H0: There are no factors responsible for poor allocation of educational resources to pubic secondary schools in AMAC

H2: There are factors responsible for poor allocation of educational resources to pubic secondary schools in AMAC

1.6 Significance of the Study

       It is often imperative to question what would be the significance of any endeavor, be it academic or otherwise. This is also applicable in this study. The researcher anticipates that at the completion of this study, it will give a clear insight on the knowledge about factors militating against the effective distribution of resources in public secondary schools. The study will be of great significance to various groups and individuals like the Ministry of Education, principals and teachers, the government and stakeholders. To the ministry of education it will help them determine the extent to which government funding would enhanced equitable distribution of educational resources for effective teaching and learning in secondary schools. To principals and teachers it will present the need to safe guard and maintain every resources allocated to them. Since adequate administration of school resources will boost teaching and learning which will also lead to improved performance of students. The results of this study would provide the government and the stakeholders with the information and strategies for improving the allocation of financial and non-fiscal resources to support greater students’ performance. Finally, the study will provide insight to scholars who might choose to embark on the same area of research.

1.7 Scope and Limitation of Study

Due to time and financial constraints, the research will be limited to resources distribution in public secondary schools in Nigeria. The research will be limited to resources budgeting and allocations, implementation and distribution of resources in in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC).

  • The research will cover four selected public secondary schools in in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC).
  • Some limitation will be the unwillingness of some of the principals and staffs of the schools to release some vital information.
  • Financial factors a will also create some limitations.

1.8 Research Methodology

Questionnaire will be distributed to staffs through the principals to fill as a means of primary data collection; emphasis will also be place on the use of secondary data collected from office files, publications, and personal interview and telephone interviews, with some of the school management staffs. The research will make effort to know the type of resources the school have been receiving from the government and the challenges in distribution from the ministry of education.

1.9 Definition of Operational Terms

Here is the definition of terms that will be used in this research work.

Assessment: this is the action of assessing someone or something. Educational assessment or educational evaluation is the systematic process of documenting and using empirical data on the knowledge, skill, attitudes, and beliefs to refine programs and improve student learning.

Resources: Resource refers to all the materials available in our environment which help us to satisfy our needs and wants. It can be a stock or supply of money, materials, staff, and other assets that can be drawn on by a person or organization in order to function effectively.

Physical Resources: In educational system, the physical resources would include the classrooms/lecture rooms, staff offices, vehicles, health centers, library, laboratory, and so on, which directly or indirectly contribute to the achievement of goals.

Distribution: This is the way in which something is shared out among a group or spread over an area

Secondary Schools: Secondary school is an educational institution where the second stage of the three schooling periods, known as secondary education and usually compulsory up to a specified age takes place.

Resource materials: Instructional materials are the tools used in educational lessons, which includes active learning and assessment.