CAMPAIGN AGAINST SEXUAL IMMORALITY IN CAMPUS A VISUAL REPRESENTATION
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This study determined the campaign against immorality campaign among undergrduates, done on television channel which was advertised from June 2020 to March 2021 in reducing sexual immorality in Enugu state. It is acknowledged that student pregnancy continues to plague the country yet very little has been done to address the problem even the use of mass media to campaign against the same has not achieved much. This study therefore assesses the efficacy of that abstinence campaign in reducing sexual immorality.
The objectives of the study wereto investigate the efficacy and potency of television campaigns in reducing sexual immorality, to determine the reach and extent of appeal of the message used in the abstinence campaign, to find out the level of knowledge regarding sexual and reproductive health
The study used Protection Motivation Theory and Social Cognitive Theory to explain the process of behavior change. The study used Descriptive Survey design to gather information as it exist at the time of study and a random sample of 80 school going undergraduates from two primary schools and two Universities aged between 13-17 in Enugu state was drawn through Stratified Sampling. The instrument of data collection that the researcher administered was a questionnaire which contained both structured and unstructured questions.
The study findings shows that television as a medium of mass communication has enormous capacity to create awareness and impart knowledge to the undergraduates though its ability to alter the behavior of the target population can only be achieved for as long as they are repeated and sustained indefinitely for maximum impact. Indeed, it can be noted that the abstinence campaign, you think that is dump? So is student sex. Be smart Abstain also achieved some degree of success since the recall rates were very high and current abstinence levels also are high. The campaign has therefore helped reduce the levels of student pregnancy but it must be done continuously and other interpersonal channels like peer educators employed to improve on its success.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
- Background history
- Statement of problem
- Aims and objective
- Delimitation of the project
- Definition of terms
Discussion of Findings
FOR INSTANCE IN ENUGU STATE FOR EXAMPLE WHICH IS CALLED THE COAL CITY – STATE, DUE TO ITS MINERALS. THE STATE WAS CREATED IN 1991 AFTER SO MANY EFFORTS. IT WAS FORMALLY KNOWN ANAMBRA. STATE. Enugu State has many universities polytechnics and also hospitals both federal, state and private the state is a well – developed place. Basically, in most of our Universities today, the youth were indecent dresses that can lead to premarital sex, child abuse and rape. This lead to the of the researcher’s topic sex is as old as man. It came into being when man came into existence. Premarital sex is almost a from of abuse as the partners are using each other with out making the commitment of life long trust and love. More then millions adolescent and youth indulge in sex. According to Janet smith research about premarital sex, it has been observed that the recent research at Cairo, Beijing Istanbul the United Nation, in the United State, the media and the opinion have finally come to recognize that unwanted pregnancies is a major source of social chaos in our culture.
A study done in 1990 of teen pregnancy in California found that 77% of all birth to high school aged girls (16 –18 years) and 51% of birth to junior high school aged girls (15 and younger,) were fathered by men then high school age.
Premarital sex, as the name implies means having sex before marriage.
In the university, premarital sex has become a tradition to our men and women. It is seen as a normal thing peoples on longer see it as bad but as a culture.
In the early 70’s people didn’t indulge must in premarital sex unlike in mid 90’s which has become the order of the day. Most f our girls today, go about wearing indecent cloth, which expose their body, which easily lure men into their bed.
Premarital sex dangerous in such a way that one can contact sexually transmitted diseases such Syphilis, Gonorrhea, HIV/ AIDs and unwanted pregnancies etc.
The government of Nigeria in 2003 came up with the Adolescents’ Reproductive Health Development policy to help address the health and development concerns of the young people and it laid its policy target on reducing the proportion of women bellow age 20 with first birth from 45%in 1998 to 22% by 2015 and also to raise the median age at first intercourse from 16.7 for girls and 16.8 for boy to 18 years by 2015. (NCPD).
1.2 Problem Statement
Even though evidence strongly suggests that the use of television media can help reduce student pregnancy by attempting to influence the attitude and belief about early and unprotected sex, very little has been done by the government to fully exploit this avenue. Successful television campaigns
should adhere to the key principles of campaign design for them to make any meaningful impact among the target audience (Noar 2006).
The first massive television campaign on abstinence, the Nimechill campaign was rated to be successful and was even acknowledged to merit continuation due to the impact it created on the target audience. However, that has not happened making the student pregnancy prevention strategies very flimsy on the television since they are not sustained and done repeatedly as required for any mass media campaign. Brown (2002) notes that there is need for such campaigns to be sustained and repeated over long term otherwise their impact might be negated by unhealthy sexual behavior rampant on the television.
It is important to note that, the amount of time and attention that young people give to mass media can also be exploited to provide an ideal opportunity for communicating, informing and educating the adolescents about health (Keller 2002) hence those channels widely watched by the undergraduates should be selected to improve on the impact of the campaigns.
The Nigeria National Council for Population and Development in its 2020 policy brief acknowledges that one of the main reasons why student pregnancy persists in the country is due to inadequate access to reproductive health information and services. It therefore means that the much has not been done to prevent student pregnancy through comprehensive strategies that can adequately address the problem.
With the latest Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey report of 2008-9 indicating that the rates of student pregnancy are higher in poorer household than wealthier households, failing to address student pregnancy in Enugu state where most residents live in deplorable situation
through effective campaign strategies will be costly to the nation in terms of increased maternal deaths, high rates of school dropouts and increased dependency levels (Dube 2003).
1.3 The purpose of the study
The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of the media mediated campaigns on abstinence in reducing sexual immorality in Enugu state.
1.4 Main Objective
To explore the capacity of television campaigns in influencing positive behavior change among undergraduates with regard to sexual activity in Enugu state.
The following specific objectives guided the study;
- To investigate the efficacy and potency of television campaigns in reducing sexual immorality
- To determine the reach and extent of appeal of the message used in the abstinence
- To find out the level of knowledge regarding sexual and reproductive health and attitudes held by the undergraduates towards abstinence and
1.5 Research Questions
The study used the following research questions to seek for answers.
- To what extent can mass media campaigns done on television reduce incidences of student pregnancy in Enugu state?
- What is the level of penetration and appeal of the abstinence campaign – you think that’s dump?
- What is the state of knowledge regarding sexual and reproductive health among school going undergraduates in Enugu state and what attitudes do they hold towards abstinence and pregnancy?
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1.6 Significance of the study
Reducing sexual immorality in the country is a key development agenda which can help improve the wellbeing of the undergraduates and also avert the negative consequences that might arise. The government and other stakeholders like the United Nation Population Fund (UNPF), Population Services International (PSI) and APHIA 11 have come up with various interventions that are meant to reduce student pregnancy in the country. The interventions have employed the use of mass media to reach the target audience even though the impact of that strategy still needs to be explored.
This study will contribute to the literature in the field of Adolescents’ Reproductive Health Interventions and further provide recommendations on how to improve mass media campaigns that are meant to reduce student pregnancy.
This study will provide information on the efficacy of abstinence campaign under study by determining its reach, appeal and the potency of television as channel of disseminating information among the target audience of Enugu state where undergraduates are faced with real challenges in terms of actualization of sexual and reproductive rights due to socio-economic problems. Therefore, the findings from the study will provide an understanding on whether there need to adjust certain components of the campaign to suit that group and whether so far it’s yielding any success.
1.7 The Scope of the Study
The study assessed the impact of the abstinence campaign in reducing sexual immorality among school going undergraduates in Enugu state with the targeted population being upper primary, forms one and two from selected Universities in the area.
READ ALSO: AN INVESTIGATION INTO IMMORALITY IN THE CHURCH AND ITS EFFECT ON CHURCH GROWTH
1.8 Limitations of the Study
Due to limitation of time and resources, the researcher used a sample size of 80 undergraduates in Enugu state and the results generalized to the entire population to explain the impact of abstinence campaign.
Even though the campaign, You Think that’s dump? So is student sex. Be Smart Abstain was done in other channels like the radio, the study will limit itself to television to assess its potency.
1.9 Definition of Key Terms
Strategy a comprehensive course of action planned to influence the behavior or attitude of a particular set of people.
Target audience members of a sub-set group to who mass media campaigns are directed.
Abstinence the ability to desist from sexual activities by the adolescents who are considered young like those in early and middle adolescence.
Abstinence TV campaigns carefully articulated initiatives done on television that are meant to delay sexual indulgence by the adolescents by providing knowledge and skills that are relevant to their needs in order to prevent early pregnancy.
Adolescence/undergraduates usually viewed as the period between childhood and adulthood for instance 10-24 years. For the purpose of this study it would be those aged 13-17 years.
Reproductive health ability of the adolescent to have safe reproductive development free from undesirable consequence like pregnancy since they are well informed and therefore able to make informed decisions with regard to their sexuality.
Effectiveness ability of an intervention to achieve its main objective like in this case to reduce student pregnancy.
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