CHALLENGES OF POLICY IMPLEMENTATION IN NIGERIA
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Table of Content
List of Tables
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
- Background of the study
- Statement of the problem
- Objective of the study
- Research Questions
- Significance of the study
- Scope of the study
- Definition of terms
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Conceptual Framework
2.2 Chapter Summary
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the study
3.3 Sample size determination
3.4 Sample size selection technique and procedure
3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
3.6 Method of data collection
3.7 Method of data analysis
3.8 Validity and Reliability of the study
3.9 Ethical Consideration
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Data Presentation
4.2 Answering Research Questions
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This study was carried out on the challenges of policy implementation in Nigeria. To achieve this 4 research questions were formulated. Respondents were obtained from civil servants resident in Abuja, FCT of Nigeria. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of the entire civil servants resident in Abuja, FCT of Nigeria. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposively selected 240 respondents while 200 respondents were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and percentage. While the hypothesis were tested using Chi-square Statistical Tool SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that the challenges militating against policy implementation in Nigeria include; lack of clear definition of goals, over ambitious policy goals, lack of appropriate technology for implementation and lack of clear definition of responsibility & coordination, the factors influencing the aforementioned challenges include; high level of incompetence, lack of continuity commitment to policy, corruption and foul politics, there are applicable solution to those challenges and among them are targeting the right beneficiaries, provision for adequate monitoring of projects, adequate material and human resources, effective communication between the target beneficiaries and the implementers of policy programs and encouraging the culture of continuity and there is significant effect of those challenges on Nigeria economy. Based on the above findings, the researcher recommended that targeting beneficiaries should be involved at the formulation stage in order for them to have an input in what affects their lives. This will also give them a sense of belonging and, therefore, a sense of commitment; Attention should be paid to both the manpower and financial resources which will be needed to implement the policy; There must be effective communication between the target beneficiaries and the implementors of policy programmes; The culture of discontinuing a policy once there is a change in government should be discouraged because even though government comes and goes, administration is continuous. There should be continuity in policy except if the policy is found not to be useful to the people. And Provision should be put in place for adequate monitoring of projects, as poorly monitored projects will only yield undesired results.
1.1 Background Of The Study
In every society, there must exist some problems. These problems could be in the areas of politics, commerce, education, agriculture, communication, housing, transportation, health etc. In order to solve these problems as they might exist at given points in time, government is always seen formulating policies in response to them and in relation to the objectives of growth, national development and well being of the citizens. This is necessary because if attempts are not made to address these problems as they arise, they may degenerate into uncontrollable stages with the society’s social-economic growth and development endangered.(Okoli and Onah, 2002). For this, the scope and effects of public policy is usually very pervasive and dominant particularly in developing nations like Nigeria with a very weak private sector (Ikelegbe 2006, Abah, 2010). For instance, it is the making and implementation of public policies that determine, for instance, the level of provision of social services, the availability of financial services for economic activities, the level of industrialization, the level of employment opportunities, the level of social or economic inequality, the availability of health facilities, the level of social security, the pace of educational development etc. Fundamentally, a public policy is a government action or proposed action directed at achieving certain desired goals or objectives (Ikelegbe, 2006). In the light of a given societal problem, public policy guides and determines present and future public decisions as well as private individual or private business institutional actions, decisions or behavior. In essence, a public policy determines the activities of government and given private institutions in relation to providing services designed to solve a given problem. Usually, policies are made or formulated by the legislative arm of the government in both the federal, state or local government tiers and implemented by the public bureaucracy or designated private institutions. In most cases, however, it is the public bureaucracy that is saddled with the responsibility of policy implementation. Indeed, in virtually every country of the world, public polices are implemented primarily by the public bureaucracy and specifically by the bureaucrats or career civil servants that work in them (Ezeani, 2006). To this extent, therefore, the role of government in development is, to a very large extent, the role of the public bureaucracy (Abah, 2010). This role the public bureaucracy, plays through the effective implementation of government policies, projects and programmes aimed at achieving development goals and objectives. Most often in Nigeria, however, policies are well and brilliantly formulated but ineffectively implemented by the bureaucracy (Obodoechi, 2009; Ikelegbe, 2006). This leads to the failure of public policies to achieve their target goals and objectives and to ultimately alleviate the problems for which they were designed. Indeed, there is usually wide gaps between formulated policy goals and the achievement of those goals as a result of ineffective implementation in almost all facets of public administration in Nigeria (Ozor, 2004; Mankinde, 2005). Initially, the emphasis in the literature of policy studies was more on the policy formulation stage. In contemporary times, however, emphasis has shifted to policy implementation following the realization that effective implementation of policies is not an automatic affair (Egonmwan, 1984; Ikelegbe, 2006; Nweke, 2006). Again policy implementation has become of greater concern to its formulation particularly in developing nations like Nigeria where the government is increasingly looked upon by the citizens to effectively implement development projects and programmes and where, contrarily, ineffective implementation of policies has become very critical and worrisome. Against this back ground, and in line with the argument of Ugo and Ukpere (2011) that an adequate solution to the problem of effective policy implementation failures in Nigeria must stem logically from a rigorous examination and analysis of its causes, the study is set to look at policy implementation as a major stage in the policy process, to highlight the need and the role of public bureaucracy in effective implementation of polices, examine obstacles that constrain the effective implementation of policies by the public bureaucracy in Nigeria and to make recommendations on how to address the challenges and strengthen the capability of the Nigerian public bureaucracy towards effective implementation of formulated policies.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Most government policies/reforms in Nigeria have failed to achieve the desired objectives because of either lopsided implementation or total failure to give effect to the motive of the policy or reform. The Nigerian Public servants have expressed doubt as to the government’s sincerity in carrying out the implementation of the monetization policy to a logical conclusion. It is expected that the reform program will minimize the massive waste, misuse, abuse and fraud that characterized the provision of fringe benefits to the public servants. The reform will encourage public servants to own personal houses; enable public servants to plan for more comfortable service life; reduce capital cost and reduce expenditure on rent as public servants who constitute majority of tenants in the urban centers would have developed their personal houses. The realization of these benefits would depend on the effectiveness of the implementation of the reform. The reform process places special strains on the civil service, which must undergo major adjustment that may increase uncertainty and lower moral in the transition period. The government has planned to down-size its workforce by 30,056 (The Guardian Sunday September 4, 2005 p.1), about 90 per cent will be the lower cadre of civil servants within the poverty bracket, especially those without basic entry qualifications for the positions they occupy. This will have adverse effect on those to be affected and will worsen the unemployment situation in the country. Thus, the exercise is elitist, both in conception and implementation. Those in the echelon of administration will enjoy higher percentage of monetized allowances. There is a very low prospect for junior workers to buy their quarters through the bidding process. Therefore, the intention of providing houses and reducing poverty of public servants will not be achieved, especially, when the junior workers constitute more than half of government workforce.
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1.3 Objectives Of The Study
The main objectives of the Study is to find out the challenges of implementing government policy in Nigeria, specifically the study intends to:
- Find out the challenges of policy implementation in Nigeria
- Analyze the effect of those challenges on Nigeria economy
- Investigate the factors influencing those challenges
- Proffer solutions to the challenges
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions are formulated to guide this study
1. What are the challenges of policy implementation in Nigeria
2. Is there any significant effect of those challenges on Nigeria economy
3. What are the factors influencing those challenges
4. What solution can be proffered to the challenges
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho: there is no significant effect of those challenges on Nigeria economy
Hi: there is significant effect of those challenges on Nigeria economy
1.6 Significance of the study
The central focus of these notions of public policy is that it is a course of action arising from environmental challenges or stimuli. Monetization policy is therefore a course of action; a plan aimed at revamping the ailing economy of the country through the application of money spent on provision of incentives to public servants to the funding of social projects.
This study will also serve as an open eye to the whole economy and finally the study will serve as a reference point for other researchers who will embark on the same research topic.
1.7 Scope Of The Study
This study on challenges of policy implementation in Nigeria is focused on finding out the challenges of policy implementation in Nigeria and emphasis on the effect of those challenges on Nigeria economy. Hence the respondents for study will be obtained from only Civil Servants resident in Abuja, FCT of Nigeria.
1.8 Limitation Of The Study
This study is delimited by various factors ranging from the time frame of the study, financial implications necessary for the success of this study and inadequate availability of materials needed to carry out the study. More also, ethical issues and institutional politics which arose in the course of this study were an impediment factor to this study.
1.9 Definition Of Term
Policy: Policy is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes
Implementation: Implementation is the realization of an application, or execution of a plan, idea, model, design, specification, standard, algorithm, or policy.
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