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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Traditional medicines include both organized (traditional medicine) and unorganized (herbalism). The world Health Organization (2002) estimated that about 80% of people worldwide rely on herbal medicine for some part of their primary health-care. According to the World Health Organization, there are annually 350,000 maternal deaths in the Sub-Saharan Africa, with obstetric hemorrhage the most common cause of death. Although maternal mortality can be reduced by health-care interventions such as the provision of family planning, maternity care and access to safe abortion practice, it is not happening in areas, studies in a rural community in northern Nigeria, had indicated the importance of medicinal plants in their primary health-care system. (Gill,1992).

Gusau City was one of the ancient cities since 16 century when the fulani migrated to hausa land in search of Islamic knowledge and other business activities, such as livestock rearing, planting and harvesting. At that time, Gobir was the only empire in Hausa land, was one of the seven original kingdoms of Hausa land. Its capital was the city of Alkalawa. In the early 19th century elements of the ruling dynasty fled north to what is today Niger from which a rival dynasty ruling as Sarkin Gobir (Sultan of Gobir), at that time the family of Danfodio came to the Gobir Empire in Daqyal for islamic propagation, at that time the zamfara fulani started searching of islamic knowledge from Danfodio such zamfara fulani are Alibawa under the umbrella of Abu Hamidu from kiyawa now Kaura Namoda Local Government Area up to moriki, And Fulani Yandotawa from Yandotaon Daji Under the umbrella of Mallan Mustapha now Tsafe Local Government Area up to Bungudu Under the umbrella of Mallan Zubairu. The first settlement in Yandoton Daji was Habe meas Katsinawa da hausawa only. Sarkin Katsina Korau attended the institution at that time, Gusau Dynasty (i.e Katsin Laka, that is Ta Sambo Dan Ashafa, GUSAU TA MALLAN SAMBO and Katsina Dyanasty (i.e Katsin Maradi, that is Katsina Dikko) are in the same territory since before jihad conquer Yandoton Daji in 1805, that is why the Gusau Dynasty are named Sarkin katsinan Gusau, in Hausa the called it “GUSAU ta Mallan Sambo kowazo Gusau Abinai Ya Gusau” Means in English “Gusau belong to Mallan Sambo, anyone coming to Gusau will achieve”, Gusau Word was drive from the word “Move” means “Gusa” Many Historian has categorically describe this word (e.g ADAM SMITH “African Society and Culture”) “There are some Town and villages formed as Military Garrison and center of learning during the European conquest and Jihad e.g Kaura, Bungudu, Gada and Yandoto Daji”

In another contribution from Sokoto History Bureau which says that, Gusau town was originated during the Jihad of Uthman Danfodio after Alwasa war, Shehu Uthman Danfodio has order his son Muhammadu Bello and Sarkin yaki Aliyu jedo to help Mallan Sambo Dan Ashafa to enhance  the Jihad of Danfodio in the Eastern Sokoto, at that time he invite the leaders of that zone who accepted the Jihad of Danfodio in Gada Town Now Bungudu LGA to give them a speeches and receive their Islamic flag. The people of Gusua have a lot of plants for the purpose of consumption and health care treatment known as “traditional medicines”. Some common plants used by women in Gusua include; Zaiti with an English name known as Red river gum, Baure – Gloriosasuperba – Climbing Ali, Dadoya- Scent leaf, Bagaruwa – Gum Arabic, Dogon yaro – Neem Azadirachta indica, Lalle – Henna leaves – Lawsonia inermis. Zogale – Moringa – Morings oleefera horseradish tree, Tunfafiya – Sodom apples – Calotropis procera, Hulba – Fenugreek, Aduwa – Desert date – Balanites aegyptiaca, Faru – Odina barteri – Lannea Microcarpa etc.

Traditional medicines, remains the only health care available in rural areas in Northern Nigeria. With limited access to modern medicine the local population uses medicinal plants to treat most diseases. The ability to synthesize a wide variety of chemical compounds that are used to perform important biological functions; predators and herbivorous mammals is called Herbal medicine. Many of these phytochemicals have beneficial effects on long-term health when consumed by humans, and can be used to effectively treat human diseases, (Idu and Olrunfemi, 2000). Chemical compounds in plants mediate their effects on the human body through processes identical to those already well understood for chemical compounds. In conventional drugs, these herbal medicines do not differ greatly from conventional drugs in terms of how they work. This enables herbal medicines to be as effective as conventional medicines, but also gives them the same potential to cause harmful side effect. (Mirutse et al., 2003).

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

This study is aim at analyzing medicinal plants used by local people and how those plants relates to the treatment of the most frequent women disease encountered in Gusau. The following are the sub objectives of the study:

  1. To identify the various medicinal plants in Gusau and their uses
  2. To assess the effect of these plants on the women of Gusua.

iii. To determine the causes of these diseases affecting Gusau’s women

  1. To find out the various preventive measures to eradicates these diseases using herbal native treatment.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. To what extent does the use of medicinal plants affects the rapid growth of diseases in Gusau’s women?
  2. Is there any significant difference between medicinal plants and over the counter drugs?
  3. Are there common plants used by women in Gusua with effective medicinal values?
  4. What are the medicinal of these plants to the women of Gusua?

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

H0: The use of medicinal plant does not affect the rapid growth of disease in gusau women.

H1: The use of medicinal plant does not affect the rapid growth of disease in gusau women.

H0: There is no significant difference between medicinal plants and over the counter drugs.

H2: There is a significant difference between medicinal plants and over the counter drugs.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

This study revealed the various ways the indigenous people harvests, process, stores and administers preparations from these medicinal plants. It also shows that the cultivation and conservation of these plants is receiving increased attention by the people. The relevance of these observations in the efforts towards documenting indigenous knowledge and use of plants especially in the area of traditional health care system is also discussed. The extensive literature on the subject indicates clearly that traditional medicine practice occupies a very prominent place in the treatment of diseases in the Nigeria culture. The present work is part of a response to seek ways of rapidly capturing information on medicinal plant species for the indigenous women of Gusua in Nigeria.

1.7 SCOPES AND LIMITATION       

The attempt by mankind to use plants and plant products to cure diseases and relieve physical suffering is as old as creation (Mirutse et al.,2003) Indigenous peoples in all ages had some knowledge of plant and through systematic trial and error approach applied them to various use. Thus the earliest attempts at use of plants for medicines were based on speculation. Infact most tribes believe that diseases were due to the driven out only by the use of poisonous or disagreeable substances calculated to make the body unpleasant place in which to remain. African traditional healing system as known as folk medicines, native medicine, herbal medicine, and ethno medicine have received appreciable attention. Thus, the only limitation to herbal medicines is;

  1. Inappropriate use of the medicine
  2. Scarcity of these medicinal plants and

iii The introduction of modern medicines

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Plants: Plants are multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom plantae.

Cultivation: The action of cultivating land.

Harvest: is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the field.

Disease: A disorder of structure or function in a human, animal or plant.

Herbal Plants: Plants with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavouring food, in medicine, or as fragrances.

Medicine: is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease.

Chemical: substance also known as a pure substance

Consume: To eat, drink, or ingest

Human: things characterize by erect posture and bipedal locomotion.

Inappropriate: not suitable or proper in the circumstances.

1.9 ORGANISATION OF THE STUDY

This research work, is organized in five chapters for easy understanding as follows: Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the ; background, aims/objectives, research questions , research hypothesis, significance, scopes and limitation of the study, definition of terms and organization of the study. Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subjects matter. Chapter three is a research methodology cover deals, on the research design and method adopted in th study. Chapter four concentrates on the data collection and analysis and presentation, of findidngs. Chapter five, gives summary, conclusion and possible recommendations.

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