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Comparative study of microorganisms associated with the spoilage of banana and pawpaw

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Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE

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Tropical Banana PawPaw Smoothie Recipe – Jocale Design



Food deterioration is the term used to describe a variety of alterations that cause food to lose its flavor or even turn harmful to consumers. These alterations may also be accompanied by changes in texture, appearance, taste, and smell.According to Akinmusire (2011), the type of microbe causing the degradation can be used to identify a range of microbial defects in agricultural products. The edible portion of a mature blooming plant’s ovary is called a fruit. Usually, it is eaten raw. They can be either meaty or dry when they grow. Fruits with flesh are further divided into drupes (plum, coconut, almond, cherry), plumes (apple and pear), and berries (orange, tomatoes, pineapple, pawpaw, and banana). Dry fruits are categorized as todehiscent (pod, follicle, and capsule) and indehiscent (achene, samara, cashew, etc.), in contrast to fleshy fruits that have an unlayered pericarpe (Jay, 2000). For humans, fruits and vegetables are essential sources of nutrients. They provide the body with the proper amounts of vitamins, lipids, minerals, and oil needed for human growth and development. On the other hand, fruits and vegetables have undergone significant modifications in existence. These include insect and microbiological attacks, as well as variations in climate. In order to develop a technique to manage spoiling, it has become necessary throughout time to isolate the microbes linked to it (Akinyele & Akinkunmi, 2012). Fruits and vegetables are more susceptible to microbial deterioration because of differences in their chemical composition, such as pH and moisture content. It is also acknowledged that the incidence of fungal fruit rotting poses a risk to human and animal health. This is because they produce mycotoxins, which are hazardous substances that are found in nature and frequently have an aromatic structure. When humans inhale or eat these chemicals, they can produce aflatoxins. 

In botany, banana and pawpaw are known as Musasapientum and Caricapapaya, respectively. Because they are perishable fruits, biotic factors cause them to spoil. Pawpaw fruit can be cooked or consumed raw. It can be used to make jams, juices, and jellies. It works really well for making fruit salad and desserts (Mitra, 1997). A banana is primarily composed of water, with 23% carbohydrates and 3% protein. Unpeeled bananas are a good source of fiber, potassium, and vitamins. One can consume raw or cooked banana fruit. Additionally, the fruit can be processed to make a variety of goods. Pulped ripe fruit can be used to make puree for ice cream, yogurt, cakes, bread, and more. Unripe green bananas can be cut and deep-fried to make chips. Although they are not eaten, banana leaves may be used to wrap food to keep it cold. In certain banana-producing regions, the pseudo stem and leaves of bananas are fed to cattle during the dry season. Although they are a fantastic source of energy, bananas require protein to be supplemented. In addition to the microbial infections linked to the entire fruit surface and those from nearby contaminated fruits, these fruits are typically exhibited for potential buyers in the open market on benches and in baskets until they are sold (Baiyewu et al., 2007). Post-harvest degradation is much worse in developing nations because of insufficient facilities for storage and transportation. Fruit microbial infections can happen in the growing season, during harvesting, handling, transporting, storing, and marketing, as well as after the consumer has made a purchase. Fruits have significant sugar and nutrient content, and because of their low pH, fungus prefer to decompose them (Singh and Sharma, 2007).According to studies by Li-cohen and Bruhiri (2002), infections are supported by the nutrients (carbohydrate, protein, and fat) found in fresh food, and fungi can thrive and grow on it. A diverse range of microbes can cause fruit to deteriorate. Microorganisms that cause spoilage can be incorporated into the crop during the seed stage, during field growth, during harvesting and post-harvest handling, or during harvest and distribution (loading and unloading) (Barth et al., 2009). The same soil-born spoilage germs that affect produce are also found on harvesting equipment, handling equipment in the packing house, in the storage facility, and on surfaces that come into contact with food all the way through the distribution chain. As a result, using Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) as early intervention measures during crop development and harvesting will significantly reduce production loss caused by degradation at all following levels in the food supply chain (Barth et al., 2009).




  1. To determine the bacteria present in the spoilage of banana and pawpaw.
  2. To determine the fungi present in the spoilage of banana and pawpaw.
  3. To compare the microorganisms associated with the spoilage of banana andpawpaw.