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Determination Of Hardness Of Well Water Supply

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ABSTRACT

The hardness of well water in Enugu metropolis (Asata, Coal Camp and New Haven) was determined using complexometric titration with EDTA (Ethylene Diaminetetracetic Acid) which is the most widely used complexing agent for the analysis of water hardness. During titration, indicator such as Erichrome Black-T was used which acts a triprotic acid. The following result were revealed after the analysis. The average amount of calcium and magnesium are as follows respectively. In Asata, it was 2.48mg/L for calcium and magnesium was 0.592mg/L = 3.072mg/L. Coal camp for calcium was 2.68mg/L and magnesium 2.68mg/L = 5.36mg/L whereas in New Haven, calcium was 2.48mg/L and magnesium 0.46mg/L = 2.94mg/L. With the results of the analysis shown, it was found that coal camp has high well water hardness because of its high degree of soil texture and soil pH. It can be vividly conclude that calcium and magnesium concentration in the water samples from these areas under study are above the standards set by World Health Organization and Water Quality Association. These increase result to soap solution forming a white precipitate instead of producing lathers when washing, this is because the 2+ ions destroy the surfactant properties of the soap. Continuous consumption of these hard waters may increase the rate of cardiovascular disease and mortality among people due to the high presence of calcium and Magnesium.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
List of tables
Table of contents
Abstract
CHAPTER ONE
1.0    Introduction

1.1    Background of the study
1.2    Statement of the problem
1.3    Objective of the study
1.4    Limitation of the study
1.5    Signification of the study

CHAPTER TWO
2.0    Literature Review 

2.1    Functions of Water
2.2    Chemical Properties of Water
2.3    Hardness of Well Water
2.4    Causes of Hardness of Water
2.5    Types of Hardness of Water
2.6    Effect of water hardness on Material
2.7    Effect of Water Hardness on Aquatic life
2.8    The Concept of EDTA Method of Hard water Analysis

CHAPTER THREE
3.0    Methodology 

3.1    Materials
3.2    Water Sample Collection
3.3    Reagent Preparation
3.4    Water Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS

CHAPTER FIVE 
5.0 Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Discussion
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation
References
Appendix 

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: magnesium hardness in Asata
Table ii: Magnesium Hardness in Coal Camp
Table iii: Magnesium hardness in New Haven
Table iv: Summary of Magnesium Hardness in Well Water
Table v: Calcium Hardness in Asata
Table vi: Calcium Hardness in Coal Camp
Table vii: Calcium Hardness in New haven
Table Viii: Summary of Calcium Hardness in Well Water

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