TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page – – – – – – – –
Declaration – – – – – – – – ii
Certification – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – 7
1.3 Purpose of the Study – – – – – 9
1.4 Significance of the Study – – – – – 9
1.5 Scope of the Study – – – – – – 11
1.6 Research Questions – – – – – – 11
1.7 Research Hypotheses – – – – – 11
1.8 Delimitation of the Study – – – – – 12
1.9 Limitation of the Study – – – – – 12
1.10 Definition of Terms – – – – – – 13
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Theoretical Framework – – – – – 14
2.1.1 Ausubel Learning Theory – – – – – 14
2.2 Conceptual Framework – – – – – 17
2.2.1 Concept of Instructional Strategy – – – – 17
2.2.2 Concept Mapping Instructional Strategy – – 20
2.2.3 Concept of Carbon and Its Compounds – – – 24
2.3 Issues in Gender and Academic Achievement – – 26
2.4 Review of Empirical Studies _ – - – 28
2.4.1 Studies on Concept Mapping and Academic Achievement – 28
2.4.2 Studies on Gender and Academic Achievement – 32
2.5 Summary of Related Literature – – – – 36
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – 38
3.2 Area of the Study- – – – – – 39
3.3 Population of the Study – – – – – 40
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique – – – 40
3.5 Instrumentation – – – – – – 41
3.6 Validity – – – – – – – 42
3.7 Treatment for Carbon and Its Compounds Group – 42
3.8 Method of Data Collection – – – – 43
3.9 Method of Data Analysis – – – – 43
3.10 Reliability of the Instrument- – – – 44
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 The Results of the Findings Is Presented In Tables Below – 45
4.1.2 Research Question Two – – – – – 46
4.1.3 Research Hypothesis One- – – – – 47
4.1.4 Research Hypothesis Two – – – – 48
4.2 Discussion of Findings – – – – – 49
4.3 Summary of Result – – – – – 52
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary- – – – – – – 53
5.2 Conclusion- – – – – – – 55
5.3 Implication of the Study- – – – – 55
5.4 Limitations of the Study – – – – – 56
5.5 Recommendations- – – – – – 56
5.7 Suggestion for Further Research – – – – 57
References- – – – – – – 58
This study was carried out in order to determine the “Effect of concept mapping instructional strategy on students’ academic achievement and attitude in chemistry on concept of carbon and its compounds. A review of literature was carried out under the broad headings of theoretical framework, conceptual framework and empirical framework. The study adopted quasi experimental of two group post-test design. The population consisted of 11, 217 senior secondary school one (SS1) chemistry students in the 14 public secondary schools in Uyo Local Government area of Akwa Ibom state in 2018/2019 academic year. The sample size was 100 students selected from two schools in study area using random sampling technique of balloting. The instrument used for collection of data was the chemistry achievement test (CAT).The reliability of the instrument was established using Pearson product moment correlation (PPCM) with a correlation coefficient of 0.78. Two research questions were posed and 3 hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Mean and standard deviation were used to provide answers for the research questions while the independent t-test was used to test for hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that students taught chemistry with the use of concept mapping performed much better than students taught chemistry with expository method. Results also showed that female students performed slightly higher than male students when taught chemistry with concept mapping. The study recommended that the concept mapping is found to be effective instructional strategy for improving students mean achievement score in chemistry.
1.1 Background of the Study
Chemistry as a branch of science deals with the study of matter, its structure, composition, properties and the changes it undergoes. The importance of chemistry as a basic requirement for economic, scientific and technological development of any nation cannot be over emphasized. This implies that the development and sustenance of any form of technology will be a wild goose chase unless a solid foundation is laid for effective and efficient chemistry education. However, a solid foundation cannot be laid unless more secondary school students choose to offer chemistry and also perform impressively in both national and international examinations. This is based on the fact that chemistry as a subject is a pre-requisite for many science and technology related courses such as medicine, engineering, pharmacy, computer science among others in tertiary institutions.
Also, chemistry cannot be isolated from our lives since human beings have always been in contact with chemical products and technology such as cosmetics, drugs, detergents, soaps, fertilizers, insecticides, electricity among many others. Ibole (2009) described chemistry, as the bride of science. To Mohammed, Bello and Gwandu (2010) chemistry is the oracle of modern science. These descriptions and assertions are based on the pivotal role which chemistry plays in industrial set up like Fertilizer, Petroleum, cement and pharmaceutical industries.
Based on the undisputable relevance of the subject, it is expected that the study of chemistry on students’ performances in public examination would be on the increase. Unfortunately despite the relevance of the subject, indices from various examination bodies, such as West African Examination Council (WACE), and National Examination Council (NECO), have shown a consistent trend of low enrolment and poor achievement in chemistry examinations. For instance, Ifeakor (2005) reviewed students’ achievement in chemistry from 1991 to 2000 in WACE SSCE O’ level examinations and reported a consistent trend of poor performance of students in the subject. Generally, the failure of students to perform well in chemistry is linked to the instructional strategies employment by teachers.
In conclusion the use of appropriate instructional strategies allows the chemistry teacher to achieve the chemistry objectives in the secondary school curriculum. Some of the methods that have been found effective in science education instruction is the use of concept maps. Concept mapping has been introduced and used in chemistry education to tackle the problem of linking the often multi-dimensional nature of the subject.
A concept map is a diagram showing relationships among concepts. They are graphical tools for organizing and representing knowledge. It is a way of representing relation between ideas, images or words in the same way that a sentence diagram represents the grammar of a sentence. Concept maps provide an excellent tool for students to generate meaningful connections between chemical concepts and they provide information about students’ conceptual understanding,
Concept mapping can be used as a knowledge representation tools to reflect relationships that exist between concepts that reside within an individual’s long term memory when constructing concept mapping, the focus is the relationships.
The combination of two concepts connected by a linking line and labeled by a linking word creates a preposition, which is the smallest linguistic unit that carries meaning. Although a concept map is normally regarded as a network structure, in order to aid learning and understanding, sections of a given concept mapping can be regarded as hierarchical fashion, the more general and more inclusive.
Concepts should be at the top of the map, with progressively more specific (and less inclusive concepts) arranged below them (Novak and Canas, 2008). In addition to concepts and labeled links, a concept map can contain another type of labeled link called a cross link. Cross links connect two distinct segments of a concept hierarchy. The inter-connective nature of cross links serves as important integrative function when constructing concept mapping. Concept mapping is a meta-learning strategy that can be used to develop student’s capacity to learn independently. This study has therefore attempted to evaluate whether concept mapping contributes to learner’s achievement and their attitudes towards concept mapping. Meaningful learning is most likely to occur when information is presented in a potentially meaningful way and the learner is encouraged to author new ideas with the establishment of links between unfamiliar concepts and knowledge which the students already have. This can be achieved through the use of concept mapping method of instruction.
Concept mapping is an instructional tool that is currently gaining popularity in the field of science education. It is a product of recent advances in cognitive science and new philosophy of science.
In general, it is the new ideas of cognitive psychologist with constructivist epistemological views and new philosophers of science that formed the cornerstone of concept mapping. A concept mapping according to Novak and Canas (2006) is one of the most effective instructional strategy, a set of concept meanings embedded in a framework of propositions. It provides a visual road map showing the pathways that we may take to construct meanings of concepts and prepositions. It is also a meta-learning and meta-knowledge tool. Although, generally developed as an evaluation tool, concept mapping is now widely used in many other aspects of education. Others used it as an instructional strategy to promote meaningful learning to help teachers become more effective. In considering the above cited examples of the uses of concept mapping, it can be described as versatile in educational medium. Although several studies have been conducted on concept mapping as an instructional strategy (Bello 2010), some important factors where either not investigated at all or insufficiently reported. Unfortunately, Udeani,(2000); Eguabor, (2005) reported that secondary school chemistry teachers hardly use concept mapping because they do not have adequate knowledge about it. This teaching strategy was developed from Ausubel’s assimilation theory of cognitive learning; which states that new concepts are acquire through assimilation into existing concept propositional framework. Ausubel’s idea of hierarchical presentation of concepts was later described as cognitive maps or concept maps (Ezeudu (1995).
Concept learning is problem based and activity oriented approach to learning which may offer learners the opportunity to participate and be actively involved in the whole process of teaching and learning. This strategy, it is hoped will sufficiently motivate and enhance student’s interest. These observations underscore the need to further explore the effectiveness of concept mapping instructional strategy in students’ achievement and attitude in chemistry. This is the main focus of the study. Furthermore the effects of gender on student’s achievement and attitude in school subjects are yet unresolved issues. Therefore, this study further investigated the effects of gender respectively on student’s academic achievement in chemistry.
Gender is an issue in teaching and learning of chemistry. It’s refers to male and female students in chemistry class. There are a number of conflicting conclusions about gender as related to academic achievement while others find it as a variable that does not affect academic achievement of student. Dyel (2011) stated that girls are not achieving as the ought to achieve academically in chemistry. Jegede and Inyang (2012) reported that gender differences are more pronounced in physical science like chemistry and physics.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There is a growing concern about which strategy or method of teaching in our secondary schools that should be able to reserved deteriorating trends in students’ poor achievement in their study of chemistry. Some suggestions have been made regarding the identification of science teaching methods and strategies which motivate students to learn better and achieve superior results in their study of chemistry.
Researchers have indicated that teachers used ineffective teaching methods and strategies in teaching secondary schools chemistry which among other factors have contributed to deteriorating students’ achievement in chemistry. The situation calls for the use of other teaching strategies which have been found effective in some other subject areas. One of such teaching technique is the use of concept mapping instructional strategy which may produce the desired effective teaching of senior secondary chemistry such that achievement improves.
Many studies have been conducted in the area of gender related difference in academic achievement and attitude in senior secondary chemistry. It has been noted that males perform better and show more interest in chemistry more than the females. Other studies reported female superiority in chemistry academic achievement and attitude. These contradictory evidences in academic achievement and attitude in chemistry have resulted in the need to verify the effect of concept mapping and gender influence on the dependent variables of this study. Therefore the problem of this study is: would mean achievement scores, mean score on gender differences and mean score on attitude of senior secondary school chemistry students’ taught using concept mapping be improved and enhanced?
1.3 Purpose of the Study
This study is mainly designed to investigate the effect of concept mapping method of instruction on students’ achievement and attitude in chemistry. Specifically, it tends to determine.
- The effect of concept mapping method on students’ achievement and attitude in chemistry.
- The effect of concept mapping method on male and female students’ achievement and attitude in chemistry
- The interactive effect of method and gender on students’ achievement and attitude in chemistry.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The quest for an acceptable, relevant, functional and conducive method for teaching and learning of chemistry has been of great concern to science educators. The study evaluated the effect of concept mapping (in teaching) on students’ achievement and attitude in chemistry. The results of this study will be made available to chemistry teachers in the school system through workshops and seminars so that they can utilize the methods effectively in the classroom. The study also investigated the effect of concept mapping strategy on the achievement of male and female students in chemistry. The results of this study will guide the teachers on whether to separate instructional techniques for male and females. The findings of this study will revealed the significance and relative effectiveness of activity based strategy such as concept mapping in enhancing student’s achievement and attitude in chemistry, more than the expository method.
Therefore the findings of this study will revealed that concept mapping enhance students’ achievement and attitude in chemistry. This finding will furnish policy makers and curriculum developers with useful information on how to help teachers and students develop appropriate teaching or learning skills for better cognitive achievement in examinations. It will also open new grounds for more research into the use of concept mapping in other subject areas aimed at improving academic performance in schools.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The study is focused on the investigation of the effect of concept mapping method of instructional strategy on students’ achievement and attitude in chemistry. The study was restricted to senior secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area.
1.6 Research Questions
- What is the difference in the mean achievement scores of student taught using concept mapping instructional strategy and those taught with expository method?
- What is the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught chemistry using concept of carbon and its compounds?
1.7 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were tested at an alpha level of 0.05 significance.
- There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of student taught chemistry using concept mapping method and expository method.
- There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female taught carbon and its compounds using expository method.
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
This study is delimited to effect of concept mapping instructional strategy on students’ achievement and attitude among students in senior secondary school in Uyo.
1.9 Limitation of the Study
A study of this nature could have covered other selected states or at least other secondary schools in other Local Government in the State, but limited time and money available restricted wider coverage.
1.10 Definition of Terms
Concept Mapping: It is a graphical arrangement of key concepts to show meaningful relationships among the selected concepts in chemistry.
Instructional Strategy: This is intended for the purposes of instruction for teaching chemistry in senior secondary school.
Achievement: This refers to a successful performance in the study of chemistry.
Chemistry: This is a science subject taught in the senior secondary school.
Attitude: This refers to students’ positive mind to the study of chemistry.
Strategy: A plan of action intended to accomplish the study of chemistry.
Learning: This is the process of acquiring knowledge in chemistry among senior secondary school students.