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| Format: Ms Word | 1-5 Chapters | Table of Content|


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The Benefits of Conflict Resolution | The Conover Company


Title page





Table of contents


Chapter one:        Introduction

1.1     Background of the study

1.2     Statement of the study

1.3     Objective of the study

1.4     Research question

1.5     Significance of the study

1.6     Scope and lamination of the study

1.7     Definition of key terms

1.8     Organization of the study

Chapter two:        Literature review and theoretical framework

2.1     Literature review

2.2     Theoretical framework

Chapter three:      research methodology

3.1     Research design

3.2     The population of the study

3.3     method of data collection

3.4     Method of data analysis

3.5     The study area

3.6     Sample size and sampling technique  

Chapter four:       Data presentation and analysis

4.1     Data presentation

4.2     Test of hypothesis

4.3     Discussion of major finding

Chapter five:        Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1     Summary

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendation



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                                          CHAPTER ONE


1.1 Background to the Study

Conflict is inevitable in every organizational setting, it can easily kick start between two individuals, groups or even within an individual. Conflict occurs in every organization including educational organizations. Since organization is a union of people with similar experiences that find themselves in one way or the other working together as a team for a purpose of achieving common goal which the organization is established for. Unavoidably, disagreements and differences in opinions can set in from time to time. Effective administration of Nigerian secondary school system, to a large extent, depends on a cordial and cooperate working relationship among principals, teachers, proprietors, and students. The harmonious working relationship, mutual implementation of decisions, and peaceful academic environment will be jeopardized, if the school and members of the school community are often in conflict (Abanyam, 2001).

The term conflict encompasses two segments, positive and negative. When conflict is not well managed, it will result in crisis but the reverse is the case when well managed. According to (Best 2006, p. 19) conflict is defined as the pursuit of incompatible interests and goals by different groups. Best view conflict as a struggle over values or claims to status, power, and scarce resources in which the aims of the conflicting parties are not only to gain the desired values, but also to neutralize, injure, or eliminate the rivals. Conflict entails discord in actions, lack of concordance in opinion in order to achieve one’s own goal. It connotes disagreement, distortions, inconsistencies, and antagonisms existing in a particular system. Conflict is wide spread in human societies, meaning that it cannot be ruled out in any human organization, be it schools and colleges, business firms or even social clubs etc (Adeniji, 2009).

Obasan (2004) opined that conflict is part of organizational life and may occur within the individual, between individuals, between individual and the group that an individual belongs to, and between two or more groups. He emphasized that conflict is generally perceived as dysfunctional, it can be beneficial because it may occur in different perspectives. Conflict may be interpersonal or intergroup. It is interpersonal when it occurs between a superior and his subordinates or between two individuals at the same level of organizational hierarchy. Intergroup conflicts occur between two different groups such as two trade unions, two departments or management and the line staff while making an attempt to implement the organisational policies and programmes.

Every institutions, such as schools and colleges, have conflict potentials since they are a collection of people with diverse personality. In other words, conflict is an inbuilt aspect of the organizational behaviour system. Hence, Flippo as cited in Edewusi (2003) and Akinwonmi (2005) pointed out that a total absence of conflict in any institution would be unbelievable, impossible, undesirable, and boring, and a strong indicator that such conflict is suppressed. The existence and prevalence of such conflicts and their traumatic effects cannot be ignored. It needs to be managed and resolved because when this mutual hostility is not managed, the effect is disharmony and dearth of peace.

The consequences of conflicts on the school organization have been regrettable. Part of the repercussions on schools is disruption of academic programmes, inadequate staffing as a result of unplanned transfer, hostility, suspicion and withdrawal from active participation in school activities. In some cases, school results were withheld or cancelled, as a result of emergency transfer of subject teachers. Hence, there is a need for conflict management.  Several intervention techniques like social intervention techniques, administrative intervention techniques, moral intervention techniques and psychological intervention techniques for conflicts management have been developed for use by teachers in resolving conflicts in secondary schools.

Conflict management is an act of finding a solution to problems or a conflict. A  good  school  does  not  mean  that  the  school  has  never experienced conflict, but that the school is able to manage conflicts that arise and can make the conflict one of the benchmarks for increasing  academic performance,  in other words the school has good conflict management strategy. The existence of conflict management can help schools to be able to manage conflict well so that it can be a potential for progress and school effectiveness in academic achievements.

There has been an increasing wave of in-disciplinary behavior in all the strata of the school system. Ibi (2001) recorded that principals are known to have issued queries, confrontations, seized salary of teachers who were found wanting in discharging their duties, and withdrawal/ transfer of duties. To Wasagu (2002), most teachers are never in school regularly and when they are, they conduct their teaching business haphazardly. Some teachers as he noted, absent themselves from duties. Even when they are in school, they would remain in the staff room gossiping instead of attending to their classes. As a result, this creates room for students’ engagement in some disruptive behavior. Some students as noted by Onoyase (2007) are often found loitering around the school compound and outside the school premises during classes. Some engage in quarrelling, fighting, gossiping, and other acts of undesirable behavior. Thus, this would most likely negate the objective of peace-culture that enhances students’ critical and holistic thinking skills, as well as instilling in them the societal values and ethics.

Most often, the way and manner some principals handle these indisciplinary acts of both teachers and students, have led to misunderstanding, disagreement, suspicion, and violence. Therefore, some researchers have regarded organizational conflict as being inevitable and hence, could not be avoided (Oyebade, 2000). This viewpoint supported earlier findings (Harrison et al., 1995; Townsley, 1997; Bourgeois et al., 1997; Desivilya, 1998). It could arise perhaps as a result of many factors such as an inadequate supply of basic amenities in the schools, inadequate facilities, insufficient audiovisual materials and inadequate number of laboratories (Adeyemi, 1998; Bens, 1999). In the light of the above, this study has examined how conflict affects student’s academic performance in Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

This study was prompted by the reoccurring conflicts in the public secondary schools in Kaduna which has negatively affected student’s academic performance. Due to the fact that two or more people are performing different functions in pursuit of the same set objectives, conflict is bound to occur. Conflict could emanate between student and student, student and authority, staff and authority, and where the managers have to deal with people’s lives, self and concept and ego sense of mission or purpose. In Kaduna State Nigeria, there seems to be a frequent unresolved conflicts in secondary schools. This is perhaps due to the nature of the school system where students and the school authorities seem to disagree on fundamental and socio-related issues. Observations in the school system show that issues on which conflicts occur include frequent hike in school fees, religious matters; mode of dressing; poor classroom space and poor services. The management implication of these conflicts to the effective running of the school system was the problem of this study. Despite this challenge, there is little information currently available on the effect of conflict management on academic performance of students in Secondary Schools in Kaduna. The researcher used public secondary schools in Kaura Local Government Area to explore this knowledge gap by investigating the persistent organizational conflict being experienced in public secondary schools as a result of ineffective organizational management which inhibits increased job dissatisfaction, communication styles, and perceptions, improved measures of organizational knowledge which impact on organizational reputation and student’s academic performance.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary aim of this study is to examine the effect of conflict management on academic performance of students in Secondary Schools in Kaduna. The specific objectives is to:

  1. Determine the effect of conflict management strategies on academic performance of secondary schools students in Kaduna State.
  2. Determine what strategies principals utilize in managing conflict in secondary schools in Kaduna.
  3. Find out the social intervention techniques teachers can adopt in resolving conflicts in secondary schools in Kaduna.
  4. Suggest effective strategies for principals in managing conflict in secondary schools in Kaduna.



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