EFFECT OF STUDY SKILLS TRAINING ON POOR STUDY HABITS AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN FAGGE, KANO STATE, NIGERIA
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This study investigated the effect of study skills training on poor study habits among senior secondary school students in Faggge local government Area of Kano State, Nigeria.Five research questions and five null hypotheses were formulated. The quasi experimental, pre-test, post-test control design guided the study. The population of the study comprised all the SS II students of Fagge local government area of Kano state. The sample was made up of 100 respondents who were assigned to two groups: study skills training(experimental group) and the control group. Each had 50 participants (25 males and 25 females). Purposive sampling was used in selecting students with poor study habits for the research. The instrument used to measure the poor study habits of students was Study Habits Inventory developed by Bakare (1977). Data were analysed using percentages, mean, standard deviation and t-test. The results showed that, there is significant effect between secondary school students exposed tostudy skills training and the control group (t=17.308, p=0.000); there is significant effect of the study skills training between the treatment and control group on home work and assignment (t=4.577, p=0.000);there is significant effect of the study skills training between the treatment and control group on time allocation,reading and note taking, and study period procedures (t=13.999, p=0.000); there is significant effect of the study skills training between the treatment and control group on concentration, written works, examinations and teacher consultation(t=18.374, p=0.000); there is significant difference between poor study habits of male and female respondent in the treatment group(t=6.126, p=0.000). Based on these findings, it was recommended that school counsellors should organize study skills training for their students often;thiscan be done every term or per session.
|TABLE OF CONTENTS|
|Table of Contents||ix|
|List of Tables||xii|
|List of Figure||xiv|
|Lists of Appendices||xv|
|Operational Definition of Terms||xvi|
|CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION|
|1.1||Background to the Study||1|
|1.2||Statement of the Problem||3|
|1.3||Objectives of the Study||4|
|1.7||Significance of the Study||6|
|1.8||Scope and Delimitation of the Study||7|
|CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE|
|2.2 Conceptual Framework||8|
|2.2.1Concept of Studying||8|
|2.2.2 Concept of Study Habits||9|
|2.2.3 Poor Study Habits||10|
|2.2.4 Effective Study Habits||12|
|2.3.1 Types of Study Skills||16|
|188.8.131.52Broad Categories of Study Skills||16|
|184.108.40.206 Specific Study Skills||21|
|2.4||Study Skills Training||36|
|2.5.2 Facilitation theory (the humanist approach)||38|
|2.5.4Sensory stimulation theory||41|
|2.5.7 Holistic learning theory||42|
|CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY|
|3.3||Population of the Study||48|
|3.4||Sample and Sampling Technique||48|
|3.6||Scoring of the Instrument||50|
|3.7||Validity of the Instrument||50|
|3.8||Reliability of the Instrument||51|
|3.9Procedure for Data Collection||51|
|3.10 Data Analysis||52|
|CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION|
|4.4||Testing of Hypotheses||58|
|4.5||Summary of Findings||67|
|CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS|
|5.5||Suggestions for further studies||74|
1.4 Background to the Study
The achievement any society made is not the function of the building acquired but depends on the capacity of inhabitants who constitute such society. Every society needs a reasonable number of elites to make great achievement. The capacity of the inhabitants is in turn reflected through academic success which is a function of study habits and attitude to study. Any fundamental change in the intellectual and social outlook of any society has to be preceded by effective study habits and positive attitude to studying by its inhabitants.
For students in formal educational institutions to attain successful achievement in their academic pursuit, they need to have good study habits. Each individual needs to understand the pattern of studies to adopt in order to excel in the course of schooling. Most students perform below average due to lack of good study habits (Abdullahi, 2008). Some students usually have problem getting started. They start studying very late. At this time, the work becomes so cumbersome with so much available materials to read and a lot of assignments to be done (Akafa, 2011).
Most students are involved with so many activities aside their studies. They skip reading their note after lessons; they keep postponing their time of studies. All books are piled up to be read at once. Hence, it is pertinent to note that there is need to encourage good study habits among students so as to attain standard and qualitative education. Each individual needs to understand the suitable approaches to consider when studying. In most cases, students are often confused on how to start, what to do within a short limited time, the time required to study in order to comprehend. This shows clearly that there is urgent need to improve the study skills of students if the purpose of learning is to enable the
learner attains good performance and academic success. It is important to note that there are students who are well focused in their studies and possessed good mental ability needed to attain good academic performance but may end up performing below expectation severally. In such instances, the issue confronting such persons is not low intelligent Quotients (I.Q) but failure to use the most effective methods of studying (Abdullahi, 2008).Lack of acquiring study skills may constitute a stumbling block to someone’s performance.
Study skills are learning strategies that help students organize process and use information effectively. (Kerka, 2007).They can be classified into two, namely broad and specific study skills. The Broad study skills include cognitive based strategies, repetitive strategies, meta-cognitive based strategies and procedural or organizational-based strategies. The specific study skills include reading strategies, time management skills, note taking methods, consultations/help seeking strategies, library use skills and concentration strategies.
It has been observed based on experience of the researcher in classroom teaching for years that a lot of students in Fagge local government area tend to study without knowing the guiding principles or the skills involved in the studying. This means they are lacking the proper study skills to achieve their academic success. The effect of this might result to malpractice during examination or failure. This has been an issue of concern to the educators: Counsellors, Teachers, Parents and government, therefore a lot need to be put in place to enhance study skills of students. To realize this goal, the school not only teaches the students to learn but exposes them to situation through which effective learning could be developed.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The issue of poor study habits due to avoidance of the rightful study skills has been a re-occurring issue among so many students in various institutions of learning. This has led to massive failure, examination malpractices, frustration, school dropout, and truancy to mention but a few. This has been an issue of immense concern to the teachers, counsellors, concerned authorities and the parents. A good number of efforts have been introduced by government so as to tackle the issue of poor study approach and habits but yield no fruitful result. Although, contributions have been made to educational sectors by government through introduction of state and Federal scholarship for students, increment of manpower, introduction of functioning guidance and counselling Section and scholarship for teachers to further their education which will in turn boost the quality of education. Yet all these efforts have not really yielded much to tackle the issue of poor study habits among the students.
Most of the secondary school students have insufficient study methods (Abdullahi,1996).They engaged most often after school hour in leisure activities such as watching movies, playing games, keeping company with friends instead of individual private studying for better understanding. When a student fails to possess competencies of organizing his time, effective studying of course materials and not meeting academic requirement and successful completion of course and program, then such will not be successful academically because there is wrong approach to study skills and habits. It is therefore necessary for students who will soon be graduating from secondary school and looking forth to tertiary institutions to be fully acquainted with varieties of study skills. Hence, this calls for the need for training program on study skills. It was against this background that the study attempts to investigate the effect of study skills training on
poor study habits among secondary school students in Fagge local government Area of
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The following are the objectives of the study:
- To examine the effect of study skills training on poor study habits of secondary school students in Fagge local government area of Kano state.
- To find out the effect of study skills training on secondary school students exposed to treatment and the control group on home work and assignment.
- To determine the effect of study skills training on secondary school students exposed to treatment and control group on time allocation, reading and note taking, and study period procedures.
- To find out the effect of study skills training on secondary school students exposed to treatment and control group on concentration, written work, examinations and teacher consultation.
- To determine the gender difference on poor study habits among those exposed to treatment.
1.9 Research Questions
The research questions of the study are:
- What is the effect of study skills training on poor study habits of secondary school students in Fagge local government area of Kano state?
- What is the effect of study skills training among the treatment and the control group on home work and assignment?
- What is the effect of study skills training among the treatment and control group on time allocation, reading and note taking, and study period procedures?
- What is the effect of study skills training among the treatment and control group on concentration, written work, examinations and teacher consultation?
- What is the effect of study skills training on male and female respondents in the experimental group?
The following hypotheses guided the study.
- There is no significant effect of the study skills training on poor study habit between secondary school students in the treatment and the control group.
- There is no significant effect of the study skills training on poor study habits between the treatment and the control group on home work and assignment.
- There is no significant effect of the study skills training on poor study habits between the treatment and control group on time allocation, reading and note taking and study period procedures.
- There is no significant effect of the study skills training on poor study habits between the treatment and control group on concentration, written work, examinations and teacher consultation.
- There is no significant effect of the study skills training on poor study habits between male and female secondary respondent in the treatment group.
1.6 Basic assumptions
The study is based on the following assumptions:
- It is assumed that the study skills training can be taught to students of secondary schools to improve their study habits.
- It is assumed that study skills training will improve poor study habits among secondary school students.
- It is assumed that when students are taught and exposed to study skills training they will do better in their academic pursuit hence, they will attain their goal.
- It is assumed that study skills training will expose the students to understanding themselves better hence, making better choices in their courses selection.
- It is assumed that the teachers, Counsellors and Parents are those responsible to help and encourage the students on good study habits and skills.
- It is assumed that study skills training will improve poor study habits hence reducing examination malpractice, drop out, frustration, and failure in examination.
- It is assumed that when students are taught to study effectively, it motivates them to read wide within and even outside their courses for verse knowledge.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The study is significant as it will benefit the following: students, Counsellors, teachers and parents. The study will benefit the students as it gives them good hints and techniques for their studies. The study is useful to the students as it helps in creating better understanding of good study habits which will lead to the attainment of their pre-planned goals.
This study will be of much significance to the Counsellors as it helps them to guide and enlighten the students towards early identification and appropriate study habits. It creates an avenue for the counseling personnel to counsel effectively on time management and development of realistic programs for the students.
The teachers who are considered the key educators will benefit from this study as this will assist them in addressing the issue of examination malpractice and mass failure among students. Likewise, the acquisition of this knowledge will assist teachers on how to implement the curriculum objectives.
The parents, government and the society at large will also benefit from the study because the result from this study will create awareness about simple and common study habits suitable for the students. This study can also be used by future researchers in other areas in other to bring about positive changes and impressive performance in school.
1.8 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This research covers only public secondary schools in Fagge local government area of Kano state. The study focused on SS II students so as to correct their poor study habit especially as they prepare for WASSCE (West Africa Senior Secondary Certificate examination) and NACO (National Examination Council). The study is delimited to Fagge local government area located within the metropolis of Kano state which comprises large numbers of secondary schools. The students have similar characteristics and from different background. However, the study is delimited to areas of guidance and counselling focusing on the effect of study skills training on poor study habits among secondary school students.
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