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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The professional political community is split on the effectiveness of billboards in political mobilization.  Some professional operatives do not use them under any circumstances.  They believe that billboards, which are not very targetable, and which cost a decent amount of money for good placement, are a waste of campaign resources.  Other consultants think that billboards can be a good use of money under certain circumstances.  Think that under certain circumstances, billboards can be a good use for political mobilization. There are three things you need to take into account as you make a decision as to whether or not billboards are a smart use of your limited campaign budget.  Billboards are a good decision only if all three of the following are true. Every candidate needs to raise their name ID somewhat, but billboards are particularly well suited for candidates who are almost completely unknown, particularly if they are well-funded.  Political billboards’ sole purpose is to raise a candidate’s name.  Billboards can be relatively cheap, or relatively expensive.  If the billboards you want to rent are not reasonably priced, skip them and plow the money into targeted direct mail. If your campaign decides that billboards would be a good fit for your strategy, be sure to design them right billboards are essentially giant yard signs in the sky.  There are two other types of billboards that I have seen campaigns attempt, with varying degrees of success. The first is the negative billboard where the campaign uses the billboard like a negative campaign piece, attacking their opponent.  In my opinion, this rarely works, as voters don’t trust billboard headlines the way they might trust a mail piece headline that is backed up by lots of facts and figures. The second alternative type of billboard is the endorsement billboard, where a campaign that gets a really great endorsement from a universally-known person in the district puts up a billboard with a picture of the endorser and a quote endorsing the candidate.  Only you can decide whether or not billboard fit into the plan and budget of your campaign.  If you use them, keep them simple, seek the best placement possible, and use them to complement your other communications efforts. The increase in billboard advertising underscores the effectiveness of billboard in political mobilization.  Billboards ensure frequent and repeated exposure to the advertisement. Billboards are usually located at points with high vehicle and human traffic.  Consequently, users of such points are regularly exposed to the advertisement in the board.  Secondly, billboard, also offer a high degree of locational flexibility.   In other words, the boards can be placed where the people actually intended them to be.  In addition, they tend it has lower cost per thousand than most of the other media.  They are usually more cost efficient, especially for the advertiser with a small budget.  Billboard offers the advantage of very good color reproduction and at the same time it is an effective reminder medium offer serving as a catalyst for buyers who buy in impulse. The greatest problems encountered by politicians and their agencies with regards to billboards are site monitoring.  Monitoring is usually difficult and so when posters get torn or washed out, it takes a while to discover and repots.  This is because the site are usually scattered around very far geographic locations.  The posters used on the board usually tedious to print and post especially when the number of sites to be covered are too many.  In other words, boards make intense creative demands on the agency.  Because they are usually seen in a fleeting second, they have to be powerfully executed so as to intrude on the passers-bys consciousness.  In this case they tend to function better as reminder media and therefore cannot serve well as the primary and sole medium for an political mobilization.  Aside its cost efficient contributes environmental aesthetic and enduring features of landscape of Ukanafun.  Again if you will glance town the length of the streets in Ukanafun, you notice that the storekeeper around the town have taken some pains to make sure they not unobserved just as the market keepers did in the main market so you can see that broadcast advertising, point of purchase advertising, and outdoor advertising (Billboards) have all been around for a long time.  but is wasn’t until the middle ages, with the world shaking advent of the printing press and moveable type, that billboard began to take the firm most familiar to as today. However, it is important to note that, billboard is very effective in political mobilizing. Knowing the candidate, political position and what intend to offer to the people. Therefore, it is against the above background that this project seeks to examine the effectiveness of billboard in political mobilization in Ukanafun.

 

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Billboard plays effective role in political mobilization, it is often to educate, inform and enlighten. However, in Ukanafun, several elections have been marred the question is how the billboard has mobilized the Ukanafun populace. Every candidate needs to raise their name ID somewhat, but billboards are particularly well suited for candidates who are almost completely unknown, particularly if they are well-funded.  It is in view of this that the researcher intends to investigate the effectiveness of billboard in political mobilization in Ukanafun.

 

  • OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The main objective of this study is to examine the effective of billboard in political mobilization in Ukanafun.

Specifically, the study intend to;

  1. Ascertain the significant relationship between the effectiveness billboard in political mobilization and Ukanafun people
  2. Ascertain the effectiveness of billboard in political mobilization to people of Ukanafun
  3. Ascertain the role play by billboard in political mobilization

 

  • RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H0: there is no effectiveness of billboard in political mobilization to Ukanafun people

H1: there is effectiveness of billboard in political mobilization to Ukanafun people

H02: there is no significant relationship between effectiveness of billboard in political mobilization and Ukanafun people

H2: there is a significant relationship between effectiveness of billboard in political mobilization and Ukanafun people

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of benefit to the federal ministry of education, students, politicians and Ukanafun people. The study will also be of great benefit to the researchers who intends to embark on research on similar topics as it will serve as a guide. Finally, the study will be of great importance to academia’s, lecturers, students and the general public.

 

  • SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The scope of this study covers effectiveness of billboard in political mobilization in Ukanafun. ).  The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

The researcher attending lectures, doing assignment, preparing for semester exam and also writing project was the major challenge, thereby limit the study.  The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher have to combine other academic activities also limit the study.  The money to photocopy and download information from internet contributes in the limitation of the work.

  • DEFINITION OF TERMS

 

EFFECTIVENESS: Effectiveness is the capability of producing a desired result or the ability to produce desired output. When something is deemed effective, it means it has an intended or expected outcome, or produces a deep, vivid impression.

BILLBOARD: A billboard (also called a hoarding in the UK and many other parts of the world) is a large outdoor advertising structure (a billing board), typically found in high-traffic areas such as alongside busy roads. Billboards present large advertisements to passing pedestrians and drivers.

POLITICAL: Politics (from Greek: Politiká: Politika, definition “affairs of the cities”) is the process of making decisions applying to all members of each group. More narrowly, it refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance organized control over a human community, particularly a state.

MOBILIZATION: The action of making something movable or capable of movement.

POLITICAL MOBILIZATION: Is defined as the actors’ attempt to influence the existing distribution of power. A directional variable is introduced in order to define more precisely the type of relationship which develops between individuals and parties.

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