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ABSTRACT

The study investigated the effect contraceptives patronage and risk involvement among female students in selected secondary schools in Nigeria. The subjects used consisted of one hundred and fifty female students randomly selected from (4) secondary schools in Nigeria. A structured questionnaire designed by the investigator was used to collect data for the study. Simple percentage and frequency count were used to analyze the data. The results depicted in simple percentage showed that majority of the female secondary were aware of contraceptives and risks involved. Therefore, some recommendation are made which include; Reproduction Health Information and services should be included in secondary school programmes and, a coordinate and sex education should be developed and be included in the secondary school curriculum.

 

                                         CHAPTER ONE

                                        INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Contraceptive is used as a form of emergency contraception (more commonly known as a morning after pill). Contraceptive is formulated to function in a manner similar to the female hormone progesterone, allowing for prevention of pregnancy if taken within a reasonable period of time. Generally, it is recommended that contraceptive be taken no later than three days after having unprotected sex. However, it has proven to be more effective in cases where the treatment was started closer to the time of the sexual encounter. Emergency contraception (EC) can significantly reduce the rate of unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions especially in Nigeria. Despite the increasing awareness of EC among educated young women in Nigeria, the rate of utilization remains low. This study therefore explores the health implication of contraceptive among female secondary school. The use of EC to analyze their knowledge of emergency contraception, methods ever used, perceived efficacy, and its acceptability.

Participants considered the use of condom and abstinence as the most effective methods of preventing unplanned pregnancy. However, many participants were misinformed about emergency contraception. Generally, participants relied on unconventional and unproven EC; Ampiclox, “Alabukun”, salt water solution, and lime and potash and perceived them to be effective in preventing unplanned pregnancies. Furthermore, respondents’ narratives about methods of preventing unwanted pregnancies revealed that inadequate information on emergency contraception, reliance on unproven crude contraceptive methods, and misconception about modern contraception constitute barriers to the use of emergency contraception. Emergency contraception is the use of a drug or device to prevent pregnancy. It could be used after an unprotected sexual intercourse, contraceptive failure, and coerced unprotected sex or in cases of sexual assault. Studies have shown that the rate of unplanned pregnancy is very high worldwide and unwanted pregnancy is the main reason women seek abortion. Emergency contraception could be very crucial in preventing unplanned pregnancies in settings where abortion is illegal, however, following the evidence presented in the literature, emergency contraception has not been demonstrated to have a population level impact with regards to the reduction in the rate of unplanned pregnancies. Globally, many unplanned pregnancies end up being aborted in safe and unsafe conditions. In Nigeria, over half of unplanned pregnancies are aborted in unsafe conditions leading to deaths and serious complications. Abortion-related mortality accounts for an estimated 8 % of global maternal deaths. Distressingly, half of the abortion-related mortality occurs among young women especially in secondary school in Nigeria. This clearly suggests that secondary school girls as a demographic segment have a special need for emergency contraception.

The health implication of contraceptive must be studied to know whether it have negative or positive effect among secondary school girls; when taken in the middle of the menstrual cycle, the preparation may inhibit ovulation. The pill can cause changes in the menstrual cycle in the lady. Your next period could start earlier or later than expected and flow can be lighter or heavier than normal. It can cause nauseating feeling which occurs in approximately 25% of users vomiting. It can also bring about bleeding disturbances in some cases, 2-3 days following tablet ingestion .Sometimes it can cause breast tenderness, headache, dizziness, fatigue.

In the majority of cases the next period starts as expected or somewhat earlier, if the period is more than 7 days late it is recommended to perform a pregnancy test. In case of prolonged or heavy bleeding, gynecological examinations are advised. If the user has a reported case of asthma, heart failure, hypertension, migraine, epilepsy, renal impairment, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, depression, and / or stroke, the preparation may be used exclusively in the above mentioned emergency cases. It is not appropriate for regular use. Contraceptive is actually a very harsh drugs on young girls, most of the secondary school girls may not follow the directives and it can cause damage to their health.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Contraceptives are not intended as a regular method of contraception. It is used to prevent pregnancy when taken within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse. It is estimated that contraceptive like postinor-2 will prevent 85% of expected pregnancies. 95% of expected pregnancies will be prevented if taken within the first 24 hours, declining to 58% if taken between 48 hours and 72 hours after unprotected intercourse. It is in view of this that the researcher intends to investigate the health implication of such contraceptives among secondary school student.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The main objective of the study is to assess the health implication of contraceptive patronage and risk involvement among female secondary school student.

Specifically, the study intend to;

  1. Assess the effect of contraceptive among female secondary school student
  2. Ascertain the relationship between contraceptive and female secondary school student
  3. Assess the rate of pregnancy among female secondary school student
  4. Ascertain the rate of female secondary school student involvement patronizing contraceptive.

1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H0: there is no effect of contraceptive among female secondary school student

H1: there is effect of contraceptive among female secondary school student

H02: there is no significant relationship between contraceptive and female secondary school student

H2: there is significant relationship between contraceptive and female secondary school student

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of benefit to the federal ministry of education, ministry of health, secondary schools, teachers, female secondary school student and all Nigerians. The study will also be of great benefit to the researchers who intends to embark on research on similar topics as it will serve as a guide.

1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The scope of this study covers the effects of contraceptive patronage and risk involvement among female secondary school student. In the course of the study, the researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

Time factor: The time allocated to the researcher during the period of the study was limited coupled with lectures and exams.

Financial constraint: the finance at the disposal of the researcher during the course of the study wasn’t sufficient enough to run the expenses of the research work.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Patronage: Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another. In the history of art, arts patronage refers to the support that kings, popes, and the wealthy have provided to artists such as musicians, painters, and sculptors.

IMPLICATION:  The conclusion that can be drawn from something although it is not explicitly stated.

HEALTH: Health is the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage.

Contraceptive: Hormonal and Barrier Contraception. There are about 15 different types of contraceptives which allow you to enjoy sex without the risk of getting pregnant. These birth control methods include: condoms, the diaphragm, the contraceptive pill, implants, IUDs (intrauterine devices), sterilization and the morning after pill.

FEMALE: of or denoting the sex that can bear offspring or produce eggs, distinguished biologically by the production of gametes (ova) which can be fertilized by male gametes.

SECONDARY SCHOOL: Secondary school is the next step up from primary school. Secondary schools are often called high schools in the United States. In Britain, secondary schools may be public schools, grammar schools or comprehensive schools.

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