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| Format: Ms Word | 1-5 Chapters | Table of Content|


Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE

Amount: ₦5,000.00

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1.1    background of the Study

1.2    Aim and Objectives of the Work 

1.3    Statement of the Problem

1.4    Significance of the Study


3.1    Materials

3.2    Methods

3.2.1 Oil Extractions

3.2.2.  Physiochemical Properties of the Oil Density Viscosity  Saponification Value (SAP): Acid value: Percentage Free Fatty Acid (%FFA):

3.2.3         Transesterification of the Oil: Methly ester Synthesis: Bio lubricant Synthesis:


African oil bean seeds | Download Scientific Diagram



1.1   background of the Study

The African oil bean, Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth is a tropical tree crop which exists in abundance in the Southern and Middle belt zones of Nigeria and in other rain forest areas of West and Central Africa. It belongs to the Leguminosae family and the sub-family of Mimosoisdeae with no known varietal characterization (Keay, 1989, ICRAF, 2004). The tree is recognized by peasant farmers in these parts of the country for its soil improvement properties and as a component of an agro-forestry system (Okafor and Fernandez, 1987). It is cultivated in forest areas (Ogbo, 2007). The African oil bean plant, Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth has been recognized as a food tree species for outlaying farms in the forest zone. According to (Asoegwu et al., 2006) they grow either wild or semi-wide with no organized cultivation in plantations or orchards in Nigeria. (Okafor et al., 1991) reported suitable techniques for the vegetative propagation of the plant with buds an stem cuttings resulting in drastically reduced fruiting age of 2-4 years and fruiting at breast height. The edible seeds of the African oil bean need rigorous but careful processing and fermentation prior to their consumption as food supplement (Asoegwu et al., 2006; Ogbo, 2007; Enujiugha and Akanbi, 2008). Some parts of the plant have medicial values, in Cameroon, the seeds are used to treat infertility while the pods are used to treat convulsion. In Nigeria comparative study of cancer risks and cancer levels have been carried out between the Easterners who ate fermented oil bean and those who did not. In Ghana, the smoke from burnt leaf is used to treat convulsion, the leaf/stem bark is used to treat diarrhea, the bark as ointment is used to treat itching, the bark decoction is used to treat lactogenicity, the bark as lotion is used in the treatment of wounds. The seed, when crushed and eaten with red ants, can induce abortion (Tico, 2005). The seed is also used to poison fish and arrows. Ashes of pods are used as cooking salt. The seeds are edible after roasting or boiling for at least 12hours. The seeds yield oil (30-36%) which is rich in protein and suitable for making candles and soap, flour from the seed can be used for bread making. The wood from the plant is used for fuel even though it makes good firewood, it gives unpleasant smell. It is also used for charcoal making.

According to (Tico, 2005), the anthelmintic bark when pounded is used for treatment of leprosy sores. In the Agro-forestry industry they supply wood and farming materials (stakes and mulch). Its trunk provides timber used for structural work. The oil bean seed tree yields forest products for making wooden household utensils (Okafor and Fernandez, 1987). The persistent flat glossy brownish flattened pod explodes at maturity and disperses the seeds. The number of seeds in the pod depends on the length of the pod and size of the seeds, the pods normally contain about 8 flat glossy brown seeds up to 7cm long. The mature dispersed seeds are harvested by gathering them manually from around the tree. The kernel (a dicotyledon), which is gray in colour, is embedded in a glossy brownish seed coat. The seeds may be said to be irregular and oval and lies flat in its natural position.

Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth was identified as a minor food supplement by (Okafor and Fernandez, 1987), while other workers have investigated and found that this oil seed contains 23-28% protein. It also contains the twenty (20) essential amino acids and essential fatty acids that make up over 10% of the fatty acids in the oil (Enujiugha and Agbede, 2000; Ogbo, 2007). The oil contain and carbohydrate contained in raw African oil bean seeds are 53.98% 0.99% and 19.16 0.76% dry wt, respectively (Enujiugha and Ayodele-Oni, 2003; Enujiugha and Akanbi, 2005). The seed when boiled, processed and fermented  for about 3-4 days (72hours) is called Ugha ukpkala in Igbo language of Eastern Nigeria, in Fulani language of Northern Nigeria, it is called Ataa or Atawa, in Zaire it is known as Twa Bobala, in Wolof language of Senegal, Gambia and Mauritania, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gambia, Cha, Sierra Leone, Benin, Guinea-Bissau, Sudan, Central African Republic, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Liberia and Gabon), it is also known as Ataa or Atawa. The fermented seeds are used traditionally  as condiments and seasonings to add flavour to food (Enujiugha and Akanbi, 2002; Ogbo, 2007; Enujiugha and Akanbi, 2008) and used for the preparation of many delicious African delicacies and snacks including, African salad, soups and sausages for eating with different staples. It is rich in vitamins and mineral and in high demand for both local consumption and for export. It is a low acid food which could be prepared into flour and explored in food fortification and confectionaries. The seed is a source of edible oil and used for candle making, cooking and soap. The seed shells are decorative and are often used to make beads which are worn as necklace, rosaries and sometimes as local dancing apparels. The seeds of African oil bean which are rich in nutrients (protein, fatty acids and minerals have been found to be a highly nutritive animal feed when fortified (Egonu and Njoku, 2006).

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1.2   Aim and Objectives of the Work 

The main aim of this work is to synthesize bio lubricant from oil beans (Pentaclethra macrophylla) seed. This will be achieved through the following objectives.

i.      To collect the oil bean seed,

ii.      To crush the oil bean seed,

iii.     To extract the oil from the oil bean seed,

iv.     To measure Viscosity, density and acid number of the Pentaclethra macrophylla oil,

v.     To trans-esterify the Pentaclethra macrophylla oil,

vi.     To evaluate viscosity, viscosity index, flash point, acid value pour point and density of bio lubricant,

vii.    To compare the cost with commercial lubricants.    

1.3   Statement of the Problem

The quest for sustainable development due to increasing environmental challenges have increased the interest in the search of renewable, biodegradable and, environmentally friendly products and processes development (Dibal and Okonkwo, 2017). Nigeria, endowed with varied agro ecological zones and diversified natural resources, have been known as the homeland and domestication of several crop plant. Pentaclethra macrophylla plant is naturally found in the southern part of Nigeria but with much negligence. The high cost of lubricants in the market is also a great challenge to the economy. Those reasons were main point of interest for this project, instead of wasting the seeds, they could be processed into useful products like renewable lubricants to minimized the use of petroleum products for producing lubricants and create job opportunity for the citizens of our society.

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In the last decades, there has been an increased worldwide concern about the environmental impact from the petroleum derivatives usage. Although only approximately 1% of all consumed petroleum be used on the lubricants formulations, the most part of these products are disposed in the environment without any treatment (Dibal and Okonkwo, 2017).

1.4   Significance of the Study

This project is aimed at the replacement of petroleum-based lubricants with oil bean seed which the country is ignorant of its value. By doing so, the first beneficiaries will be farmers who are going to prepare a farm of this plant. This is because they will be raw material suppliers for the industries that are engaged in the production of oil bean seed lubricants. For a country like Nigeria in which about 85% of her people follow agriculture-based way of life, such type of project is going to upgrade the society economic status. Environmentally, it has also advantage of decreasing the deposits from automobiles that use petroleum-based products, wastes that are going to be released after usage which cannot be recycled back to the environment and also planting the seed as farm will make comfortable environment, as it is afforestation. This type of project will initiate the country to minimize importing petroleum-based lubricants by replacing them with biodegradable and renewable lubricant which has better characteristic than the recent one which will in turn decrease cost of importing, transportation. In this way the country will become energetically self-sufficient, no fear for the depletion of petroleum reservoirs. It also brings the country to green economy system.


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