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Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE
Background of the Study
Globally, technology is changing the world at an unbelievable rate. According to Oden and Asim (2002), any nation that ignores scientific literacy may find it difficult to fit into the world affairs. Nigeria is not an exception; as a result, all effort must be put in place to meet up with challenges ahead. The concept of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) is as a result of the advent of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). According to Yenice (2006), Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) is instruction or remediation presented on a computer to illustrate a concept through attractive animation, sound, and demonstration. CAI is a kind of instruction that exploit computer software to assist teachers teach information or skills related to a particular topic and students can interact directly with lessons programmed into the computer system, (Roblyer, 2004).
According to Aladejana (2013), in the past, classrooms were a circle of memorization, repetition, and note copying. Today, ICT has increasingly changed the way and manner in which knowledge is delivered. Right from childhood, children in the 21st century glue endlessly to television watching cartoons, playing games and other ICT related materials. Technology has become an integral part of our everyday lives. At home, learners come in contact with mobile phones, television, computer, internet, games cash registers, bar-code scanners, traffic light, automatic doors, security cameras, remote controls, fax machines. The conflict then arise when such students get to the classroom and are still expected to sit and listen, write and regurgitate learning materials (Aladejana and Idowu, 2006; Aladejana 2011). Thus, the 21st century classroom must be matched with 21st century education which should be flexible, creative, challenging, complex and above all leaner-centered.
The present state of teaching and learning in Colleges of Education is a concern to all. College of Education according to Ugwuoke (2013), is a tertiary institution that prepares teachers for a minimum of three years to make them qualify to teach their respective subjects, namely: Agriculture, Computer Education, Languages, Social Sciences, Arts and Physics in primary and Post Primary Schools. College of Education according to Teboho (2000) ‘is one of the tertiary levels of education saddled with the responsibility for implementation of teacher education programme in Nigeria under the Supervision of National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE). They offer post secondary Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) training Programmes. The NCE is also the minimum teaching qualification required for teaching in primary since 1998, Junior Secondary Schools and technical College. Some of the colleges also offer NCE pre – primary courses in order to produce teachers for the pre-primary level of education. The National Commission for College of Education (NCCE) minimum standard for employment as lecturers in this college is first degree, second class upper, credit in a teaching subject. These lecturers are assigned the responsibility of essentially facilitating teaching and learning. A lecturer is a teaching staff of Colleges of Education that is assigned with the responsibility of ensuring that the objectives of establishing College of Education are achieved. They are primarily responsible for teaching, research and promoting the objectives of Colleges of Education through graduation of teachers for primary, pre-primary and post-primary schools.
These lecturers comprise both male and female with at least two or three years teaching experiences. The lecturer must also register with the Teachers Registration Council of Nigeria. Some of this Colleges of Education are located in cities and town while some are located in remote area without the needed infrastructural services such as electricity, good road, network cables, but in most cases the Colleges are sited based on political reasons. The location of the College of Education is also very important in deciding whether Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) can be used to facilitate teaching and learning. CAI works with Electricity and presence of Network services, where these do not exist, it may be difficult to use CAI as teaching methods. He must also have undergone teachers’ training program in Education to be certified as a lecturer.
According to Fafunwa as cited in Olelewe (2010), teaching is defined as a conscious and deliberate effort made by a matured or experienced person to impart knowledge to immature or less experienced person with the intension that the letter will learn. According to Aladejana (2007), teaching at various levels still retains the old conservative approach with the teacher, in most cases, acting as the repertoire of knowledge and the students as dominant recipients. There is over-reliance on textbooks and only occasional demonstrations and experimental classes. In an average classroom, one finds a teacher at the blackboard putting important facts while students furiously copy all that is written and said and are expected to memorize the facts and spit them out in examinations.
Teaching and learning is an organized instructional process that is consciously geared towards transforming and developing learners’ intellectual ability, skills, ethics and values to enable them function effectively and become self-reliant, and contribute positively to societal development. Ede (2009) views teaching as a means of learning where learning is active, intentional, and motivational and a social process of knowledge construction and decision making.
Learning process entails the initiation, modification and change of perceptual order through active engagement of learners in the learning activities (Nurmi & Jaakkola, 2006). In the context of this study, teaching and learning is a joint description of teacher and learner’s complimentary and interdependent classroom activities initiated and directed towards helping the learners to access knowledge, increase understanding, develop concepts and practice skills to achieve a set of learning objectives and specified standards within a formal school system.
Okoro (2002), defined learning as a process by which knowledge, skills, habits, facts, ideas and principles are acquired through study, instruction or experience. In the context of this study learning encompasses the way and means by which learners used computer aided instruction facilities to acquire new or modifying existing knowledge, behavior, skills, values or preferences to enable them improve their performances or reorganize their thinking as a result of their active, intentional, motivational involvement in the process of knowledge construction, decision making and attitude development towards the utilization of CAI in a school setting. Utilization according to Raghu, (2009), is the primary method by which asset performance is measured and business determined. It is the transformation of set of input into goods or services (Subba, 2009). It involves creation of value in things. Utilization in this context refers to the extent to which computer aided instruction is put into use or services by lecturers in college of education in their teaching and learning processes.
Extent on the other hand refers to how far the computer aided instruction have been contributing in the teaching and learning in Colleges of Education as regards to provision of knowledge and skills (Ngoka, 2003). Several researchers have identified the importance of CAI in education. It has been found that CAI allows learners to progress at their own pace and work individually to solve problems either in a group or individually. Computers Assisted Instruction provide immediate feedback, letting students know whether selected answer is correct or wrong. Egunjobi (2002), opined that that if an answer is incorrect, the programme shows students how to correctly answer the question. Computers offer a different type of activities and could offer a change of pace from teacher-led or group instruction.
CAI improves instruction for pupils to receive immediate feedback. Computer programmes can present instruction at the learners’ pace and keep track of the learners’ errors and progress. Computers capture the learners’ attention because the programmes are interactive and engage the learners’ spirit of competitiveness to increase their scores. Also, CAI moves at the learners’ pace and usually does not move ahead until they have mastered the skill (Yenice, 2006). Ekpe (2007), indentified the importance to include assisting students’ understanding of concepts, enhancing students’ motivation in exploring, investigating, conjecturing, creating and discovering principles and making generalization and connections. According to Guha (2003), CAI ensures student involvement in the learning process; and developing students’ problem-solving abilities by allowing them to analyze and decompose a problem by using systematic trial and error to find solution (Roblyer, 2004). CAI allows for instructional delivery through project based learning, peer teaching, dramatization/role play, uses of field trips, demonstration and multimedia. As a tool, it is very effective in many ways especially in instructional delivery. CAI can also be used for individualized instructions, giving immediate feedback evaluate students answers while the questions are fresh in their mind. Furthermore Computer Aided Instruction can also be used in collaborative learning. This is an instructional methodology that provides opportunities for student to develop skills in group interaction and in working with others that are needed in today’s world.
According to Rossi and Freeman (1993) computer can be used for effective evaluation of students. This evaluation touches programme developmental stages especially in instructional designs, design process, formative stages. The advantage inherent in various computer aided instruction such as instructional delivery, individualized instruction, collaborative learning and evaluation of learning outcomes make it a better option in today’s colleges of education. It offers better teaching and learning method than our conventional ways which is teacher centred rather than students centered learning environments. The conventional method offers less freedom for both the teachers and the students.
The conventional method of instruction has really failed to deliver the needed goals, we need a change in instruction but we can’t throw away the traditional instruction method. There is a need to supplement it with current state of art in teaching that is acceptable to the world. Computer assisted instruction package has the potential to enhance teaching and learning especially when it is supplemented with the conventional method of instruction.
It is therefore pertinent to determine the utilization of CAI by lecturers in College of Education in Enugu State in teaching and learning process that will ensure student achievement.
Statement of the Problem
The performance of students has been quite unsatisfactory over the years in Nigerian College of Education. Particularly in Enugu State, the performance of student can be attributed to many factors which include inappropriate use of teaching strategies and ineffective use of media. It will be improper to continue with conventional method of teaching and learning which has not been very effective in promoting meaningful learning in College of Education.
The use of innovative instructional strategies as well as instructional media that will bring about meaningful learning has become imperative. Several strategies have been employed to improve students’ performance in school subjects in Nigeria, among them is the method being advocated in this study which involves the use of computer Assisted Instruction in classroom.
Another major reason for poor performance in education may be the use of inadequate strategies resulting in the no-involvement of students in the teaching and learning process by the teachers. This according to Adetiba (2010), results in ineffectiveness as it does not give room for retention of ideas, facts, and principles for immediate recall and application of learned materials to new and related situations. This indicates that, many lecturers adopt teaching strategies which rely heavily on text books. The text book and teacher centred method are not yielding the desired results in colleges of education nowadays. As a result, there is need to carry out a research on improving teaching and learning among lecturers in colleges of education. Therefore, the main problem of this work is aimed at finding alternative method to teaching in other to eliminate the shortcomings of conventional method. CAI can offer a better option.
Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of the study was to determine the extent of utilization of Computer-Assisted Instruction in teaching and learning by Lecturers in College of Education in Enugu state. Specifically, the study sought to:
- determine the extent of the use of CAI in instructional delivery in Colleges of Education in Enugu State;
- determine the extent of use of CAI in individualized instruction by lecturers in College of Education in Enugu State;
- determine the extent of use of CAI in collaborative learning by lecturers in Colleges of Education in Enugu State;
- determine the extent use of CAI by lecturers in evaluation of learning out comes in Colleges of Education in Enugu State.
Significance of the Study
The study would be of immense benefit to: students, teachers, teacher training institutions, curriculum developers, policy makers, parents, government and the nation at large will benefit from the findings in the following ways. The result of this study is expected to have positive impacts on teaching and learning in Colleges of Education and other levels of schooling in Nigeria. It would also be useful to computer programmers and software designers by providing them with the appropriate programme for effective teaching and learning.
The study would be of benefit to teachers most especially to Lecturers because the CAI package would stimulate and encourage them to be innovative in their teaching and enable them to pass their experience to the new teacher since they are saddled with responsibility of training teachers. It would stimulate and encourage teachers’ innovativeness, resourcefulness, ingenuity and challenge them to use what they have created to achieve their objectives.
To teacher training institutions, State and Federal Ministries of Education, the result of this study might provide information with which they can organize seminars, conferences and workshops for teachers. Such in-service training programmes would furnish teachers with necessary knowledge on different mode of instruction for effective teaching and learning. The findings from this study may attract the attention of teacher training institutions to incorporate and emphasize the techniques for the production and utilization of computer packages in their program. This is to ensure that the teacher have the requisite knowledge, skills, attitude and interest to generate learning process. It could also assist in formulating Standard of teaching for teachers’ preparation, thereby enabling the teachers to master appropriate instructional strategies which would be used for teaching.
The result is expected to be useful to learners because it would provide opportunities for students to practice basic computer skills. They learn some basic concepts at their own pace and time. Also, the use of CAI package developed as a result of this study can lead to raising students’ interests in learning after being exposed to the package. The CAI package could make students to be creative and also help them to generate ideas in problem solving. With the use of computer assisted instructional package in learning, the interest of the learners to engage in irrelevant programs such as video games when they are supposed to be reading their books could be transferred to a more productive and educative pursuit. The learners listening skill which is vital to efficient learning could be improved upon through the application of the package, thus reducing the phobia for learning.
To curriculum developers, the study would keep curriculum developers abreast of specific instructional medium in relation to curriculum content when this study is published at conferences and workshops. This is to give direction and confidence to the teacher whose job is to put the curriculum into use and to ensure the attainment of specific objectives of learning. To the policy makers the result of the study would enable them to lay more emphasis on the introduction of computer innovative programs as a course in the Colleges of Education in order to equip Nigerians in ICT application in the classrooms.
The following research questions guided the study:
- What is the extent of use of CAI in instructional delivery in Colleges of Education in Enugu State?
- What is the extent of use of CAI in individualized instruction by lecturers in College of Education in Enugu State?
- What is the extent of the use of CAI in collaborative learning by lecturers in Colleges of Education in Enugu State?
- What is the extent of use of CAI in evaluation of learning outcomes by lecturers in Colleges of Education in Enugu State?
The following null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance.
Ho1: There is no significant difference in the mean responses of lecturers and instructors on the extent of use of CAI in instructional delivery in Colleges of Education in Enugu State.
Ho2: There is no significant difference in the mean responses of lecturers’ in private, state and federal Colleges of Education on the use of CAI in individualized instruction in Colleges of Education in Enugu State.
Ho3: There is no significant difference in the mean responses of lecturers on the extent of use of CAI in collaborative learning in College of Education in Enugu State with respect to years of experience.
Ho4: There is no significant difference in the mean responses of lecturers in private, state and federal colleges of education on the extent of use of CAI in evaluation of learning outcomes in Colleges of Education in Enugu State.
Scope of the Study
The study was restricted to extent of utilization of Computer Assisted Instruction in teaching and learning by lecturers in Colleges of Education in Enugu State. The instrument for data collection was restricted to the questionnaire while the respondents were restricted to lecturers in the Colleges of Education in Enugu State. The study was also limited to instructional delivery, individualized instruction, collaborative learning and evaluation in CAI modules.