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| Format: Ms Word | 1-5 Chapters | Table of Content|


Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE

Amount: ₦5,000.00

Account Details




1.1 Background to the study

Nigeria’s education policy comprises provisions designed to ensure that citizens’ education is both relevant and functional in order to promote holistic development. To guarantee efficient curriculum delivery in schools, certain provisions have also been developed for various educational system levels. The nation’s educational objectives must be distinctly stated for the benefit of all citizens, taking into account the demands of both the individual and the larger society, as well as the environmental and contemporary world realities (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004). According to Orji and Uka (2012), in order to make this a reality in any culture, certain inevitable elements such as teaching materials, methods used, curriculum, teacher, and student engagement must be addressed. In Nigerian secondary school, a variety of disciplines have been incorporated in the curriculum to help students gain knowledge and skills. Certain disciplines are designated as core, while others are classified as vocational electives or non-vocational electives. Geography is included in both core and non-vocational elective categories. This demonstrates the relevance of Geography in accomplishing national educational goals, which cannot be overstated.

Geography is the study of places and the relationships between people and their environments. Geographers investigate both the physical properties of the Earth’s surface and the human societies spread across it. Education is considered a first step in every human activity. It plays a vital role in the development of human capital and is linked to an individual’s well-being and opportunities for better living (Battle & Lewis, 2002). It is intended to make an impact locally, regionally, nationally, and worldwide.  Educators, trainers, and researchers have long been interested in investigating aspects that contribute to optimal learner performance. These elements, both within and outside of school, affect pupils’ academic progress. These elements can be classified as student, family, school, and peer factors (Crosnoe, Johnson, & Elder, 2004). The formal inquiry of the role of these demographic determinants dates back to the 17th century (Mann 1985). In general, these characteristics include age, gender, geographical belongingness, ethnicity, marital status, socioeconomic position (SES), parents’ educational level, parental occupation, language, income, and religious connections.

According to the Research Division of Cambridge Assessment (2007), students chose specific disciplines thinking they will be relevant in their future careers. Teachers use counseling to influence students’ geography choices. Teachers may have functioned as role models for certain kids and would choose to pursue subjects that they teach in schools. No wonder 73% of students chose Geography as an elective subject. The teacher’s influence on students cannot be overstated. The link between social studies (taught at the junior secondary level) and geography (taught at the senior secondary level) influences students’ choices. As previously stated, Social Studies, which is related to Geography, is taught at the junior secondary level, whereas Geography is taught at the senior secondary level in Botswana. Given the strong relationship between the two topics, students who have offered Social Studies in junior secondary school may want to offer Geography in senior secondary school.

However, teaching Geography as a science or social science topic in senior secondary schools is not without its challenges. Many researchers have documented pupils’ poor academic performance in all science areas, but particularly in geography. This is further supported by high failure rates in public examinations in the country, such as the West African Examination Council (WAEC) and the National Examination Council (NECO). According to Akinniyi, Olaleye, and Adewumi (2008), inadequate classroom practices have led to a deterioration in students’ science performance. Students’ academic achievement is being used as a predictor of the overall quality of the education system. To this purpose, Effandi and Iksan (2007) argued that the quality of education provided to pupils is determined by what teachers perform in the classroom. Similarly, Awoyemi, as described in Linda (2000), ascribed students’ poor performance to low-quality teachers. Alimi and Balogun (2010) discovered a positive association between teacher characteristics and students’ academic performance in geography.

The above emphasizes the significance of teacher pedagogical efficiency in attaining quality education and as a predictor of students’ academic performance. The continued use of traditional teaching methods such as lectures in Geography classrooms has been a contributing cause to students’ low performance in the subject. According to Clar and Wareham (2003), geography has traditionally used a broader range of teaching approaches than many other courses, and this diversity has tended to extend even more in recent years. As a synthesis of other sciences, geography has a number of recurring themes that set it apart from other disciplines and assist to bring the human and physical parts of the subject together. The nature of this subject necessitates a shift from teacher-centered to learner-centered instructional methodologies that allow learners to actively participate in the learning process, resulting in more meaningful learning.

Students’ performance in Geography at the senior secondary certificate test in Nigeria has been subpar for several years. This begs the issue among instructors and students as to why Geography performance in this region of the world stays so poor year after year. Furthermore, as shown by Akintade (2011)’s study at Ilorin, there has been a decline in the annual number of students enrolled in geography, as well as a lack of keen interest in geography as a school subject, which contradicts the findings of Adeyemi (2009), who observed that more students choose geography from the list of available optional subjects in Nigeria.

The general lack of enthusiasm that students have shown for studying geography in secondary school (Olanipekun, 1988); the characteristics of teachers and their interactions with students (Zarei and Sharifabad, 2012; Sabitu and Nuradeen, 2010); teacher attrition (Egu, Ogbonnawuju and Chionye, 2011); the characteristics of students, their peer groups, and parents’ influence on the subjects they choose to study and their employment prospects in geography (Akintade, 2011); the nature of the geography curriculum; the incapacity of social studies studied in junior secondary schools to meet the requirements of geography at the senior secondary school level (Olanipekun, 1988); and inadequate supply of geography resources, including labs, books, and

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The public’s outcry against the widespread failure of Senior Secondary School students in the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE), which is administered by the National Examination Council (NECO), West African Examination Council (WAEC), and other organizations, is indicative of both the ineffectiveness of the teachers involved and the low caliber of education at this level. Since teachers’ performance in the classroom determines the kind of education they provide, they have been held accountable for the rising drop in pupils’ academic achievement. The type and caliber of methods and strategies used in the instruction and learning of a specific subject, body of knowledge, or learning experience always have an impact on the outcomes of learning (Mangal, 2009).

The generally acknowledged decline in the quality of education in Nigeria and the reported low student performance may be caused by teachers’ ineffectiveness lack interacting with pupils in the classroom (Akiri & Ugborugbo, 2009). Eduwen (1993) also covered issues with teaching geography, such as the lack of qualified instructors and the need for a broad understanding of the subject. Useni, Okolo, and Yakubu (2012) linked student attitudes about the subject, the environment in which they are taught, and the problem of secondary school pupils performing poorly. In general, students’ performance in geography is subpar when compared to other disciplines. Students’ subpar academic achievement in geography is a result of teachers’ continued use of inefficient teaching strategies like the lecture method.

Accordingly, Tshibalo (2003) linked the low performance of geography students to the application of antiquated, ineffectual teaching techniques like the lecture method. Teachers must adopt new, student-centered tactics to replace their outdated, teacher-centered ones in order to improve their pupils’ academic achievement. In order to fulfill their professional responsibilities, geography teachers must now search for more advanced and contemporary ways to teach the subject. Teachers of geography should experiment with different teaching methods that have been proven successful in other subject areas. Numerous teaching methods have been put forth and used in a wide range of subject areas, all of which have improved students’ academic performance. One of these tactics is cooperative learning, which offers a variety of learning possibilities outside of the conventional classroom and has use in science, math, and other subjects. For these reasons, in order to enhance their instruction and the academic achievement of their students, geography teachers should implement cooperative learning strategies in their classrooms.

According to Van Wyk (2011), achieving cross-critical outcomes and maintaining an acceptable level of variation call for a variety of tools, tactics, and strategies in good and effective teaching. Therefore, it is crucial for geography teachers to possess pedagogical competence if they are to improve the performance of senior secondary school pupils in the subject. In light of the aforementioned, the cooperative learning approach—a more advanced and contemporary method of teaching geography—has been suggested for use at the upper secondary school level. When using a cooperative learning technique, the focus is on getting students to collaborate in small, diverse groups of two to five people to solve a particular problem in order to accomplish a shared objective. Since contemporary secondary schools are characterized by limited resources and big class sizes, a geography teacher adopting this technique to teach an aspect of map reading can make use of the few topographical maps at his disposal to maximize learning among students even in large size classes.

Specifically therefore, the researcher seeks to determine the factors associated with mass failure of student in Geography in secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government Area.

1.3       Objectives of the study

The main objectives of the study are to:

  1. To examine the factors leading to mass failure of student in Geography in Secondary School in Nsukka Local Government Area.
  2. To ascertain the possible solutions to the causes of mass failure of student in Geography in Secondary School in Nsukka Local Government Area.
  3. To investigate the relationship between teachers qualification and school academic performances in geography.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. Are the factors leading to the mass failure of student in Geography in Secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government Area?
  2. Are the possible solutions to the causes of mass failure of student in Geography in Secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government Area?
  3. Is there any significant relationship between teacher’s qualification and student academic performance in Geography?

1.5 Scope of the study

This is limited to the factors associated with mass failure of student in Geography in secondary school in Nsukka Local Government Area.