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This study was designed to investigate factors influencing parental perception of nomadic education in Shagari Local Government Area of Sokoto State. Descriptive survey design was employed which used Krejcie and Morgan (1971) table for determining the sample size in selecting the subjects for the study, the instruments used were Focus Group Discussion (FGDs) guide, interview and observation were the major instruments used in data collection. Subject of the research work were derived using stratified random sampling technique. Three hundred and eight four (384) subjects were drawn from the total population. The instruments used were validated by experts in the Faculty of Education and Extension Services of Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Frequency counts and percentages were used to analyze the data collected from FGD guide, interview. and observation. The result of the study shows that most of the nomads parent are illiterates and do not understand the importance of education, rather attaching more importance to animal rearing than education. It also revealed that economic hardship rendered nomads vulnerable. Among other things it was recommended that field education officers and teachers handling nomadic education would need to be trained for the new curriculum as well as on the nomadic culture to enhance their interaction.
1.1 Background to the Study
Education is the process which bridges generations and thereby passing on old value and creating new ones. Therefore, education gives the basis for human capital formation, social mobility and increased opportunities for the population. Okoh (1983), noted that education should be a birth-right and not a privilege of every citizen of any country. It is an effective instrument for development and a strategic tool for liberating the mass of the people from ignorance, disease and poverty. It should be a dynamic force for ensuring progress and overall betterment of people, and that equality of educational opportunities is the pre-requisite for building up an egalitarian society. Today, the debate about minorities in education focuses on the under privileged groups of people who have little or no assess to the provision of formal education. This means that their chances for or level of participation in education is low. Education is considered to be an important instrument of integration as it helps the under privileged into the mainstream of the society. In many countries, certain groups in the population are disadvantaged in terms of educational provisions and opportunities because of their race, ethnicity, creed, religion, sex, family socio-economic background and status as well as geographical location.
Nigeria is made of various ethnic groups, the constitutional educational objectives and principle (1989) stated that, the federal government shall take all positive steps to ensure that the educational opportunities available at all levels to persons in any area or part of the federation are equal to those in any other area or part of the federation. Thus the nomads have the same and equal right of access to education at all level like other Nigerians.
Eleazu in Simon (1986) stated that following the above constitutional guiding principle, the national policy on education (1981 revised) stated that, the philosophy of Nigeria education will be based on the integration of the individual into a proud and effective citizenship and equal opportunities for all citizens. Therefore, among the main aims and objective of education in Nigeria are the inculcation of national consciousness and unity and the right type of value and attitudes for the survival of the individual.
With the rapid school population growth, the introduction of Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme/policy in 1999 was to ensure the provision of free. Universal Basic Education for every Nigerian child of school going age in order to eradicate illiteracy, ignorance and poverty. This is with the view to stimulating and accelerating national development, political consciousness and national integration. The UBE programme (2004) stated clearly that there should be special programme for nomadic populations. Equality of educational provision and opportunity has some implication for policy and practice depending on the perspective, interests, norms and values of a given society. It necessarily implies the following:
- A free universal education
- A common curriculum for all regardless of background
- Diversified curricula to meet the various needs of different types of student
- A common school problem that is open for all children without any distinction
- Compulsory education for the under privileged. Okoh (1983) agreed that there are certain factors which affect the type of education a particular child receives, that is, his sex, his social and economic status, the career he hopes to follow, the wishes of his parents and his ability.
In view of the above factors, any educational policy should take into consideration the socio-cultural and economic reality of the child’s environment in order not to maximize the differences among individuals. The Fulani child is a peculiar student because of his migratory way of life, his culture, his environment and activities. Nomadic education was introduced in Nigeria by decree no 41, of 12 December, (1989) to specifically cater for the educational needs of the children of nomads. The goals of the program are to provide them with relevant and functional basic education, and improving the survival skills of the nomads through improved methods of animal husbandry. This work therefore examines the factors influencing parental perception of nomadic education with a particular reference to Shagari Local Government Area of Sokoto State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In Nigeria, great majority of the population lives in rural areas where basic education for children is associated with many difficulties. Since independence, there has been efforts for a more relevant educational system which can empower Nigeria to forge her true, confident and self-reliant cultural identity and develop economically, politically, socially and morally. Sprindler in Okoh (1983) sees peasant and tribal villages of developing countries like Nigeria, as being profoundly affected by the modernizing influence of schools which move the individual out of traditionalism into modernity. In this process, the schools are preparing the young for a different kind of world from the one in which their parents grew up. Thus, schools have become intentional agents of discontinuity that does not reinforce the traditional values, attitudes and skills of the society.
Migrant groups, such as the Fulanis in shagari local government area live a segregated way of life in a more or less hostile social environment and adopt a defensive attitude towards schooling, sticking to their ethnic identity and upholding of their cultural roots symbolized by their religion, language and common origin. In fact, education in general does not promote their cultured life (pulako), where as primary education alienates the children from their tribal occupations which are basically animal husbandry and herding. The education system fails to satisfy parental motivations, because these programmes are against what parents see as the function of education. In Shagari Local Government Area, the new system of education has often been seen as a threat to the home as it undermines parental influence and family values by substituting them with the alien influence of teachers. And moreover, it is perceived as undermining parents’ sense of responsibility, taking on the child-care duties which properly belong to parents. Therefore, parents see the school as a major source of vice and serious moral contamination as parental guidance and filial obedience are undermined. It is generally admitted today that, the force of parental perception therefore, while positive in its strongest motivation to education is a key to betterment and success of any educational endeavor. Therefore, the main thrust of this study is to investigate the factors that influence parental perception of nomadic education in Shagari Local Government Area of Sokoto State and how it affects the effectiveness of the educational system.
1.3 Research Questions
The following are the research questions generated for the purpose of this study:
- Do socio-culture factors influence parental perception of nomadic education?
- To what extent do economic factors influence parents’ perception of nomadic education?
- How does the availability of quality staff and school facilities influence parental perception of nomadic education in Shagari Local Government Area of Sokoto state?
- To what extent does the Local management of nomadic education influence parents’ perception of the system?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study are as follows:
- To examine the socio-cultural factors that influence parental perception of nomadic education.
- To find out the extent to which economic factors influence parental perception of nomadic education.
- To examine if the availability of qualified staff influence parental perception of nomadic education.
- To find out if the Local management of nomadic education influence parental perception of the system.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study focused on the essential factors influencing parental perception of nomadic education. Therefore, the findings of this study will be of significance to government in order to establish whether the current nomadic education programme has any relevance to nomad’s socio-cultural and economic background.
The findings of the study will be of significance to educational planners, teachers, school administrators, international agencies and the stakeholders in education by providing suggestions and recommendations which will help to tackle adequately some challenges of nomadic education for necessary improvement. To parents, in order to sensitize them on the value of formal education and the importance of modern knowledge in nation building.
The findings of the study will be of significance to sociologists of education, which will broaden their knowledge and perspectives of social inequalities in access to formal education for some minorities on account of their culture and geographical location. It will also be a source of knowledge to those interested in research on nomadic education.
1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The issue of nomadic education is of great concern to Nigerian authorities, as many regions of the federation have minorities who are disadvantaged in terms of formal education. Despite the fact that nomadic education is a national issue, this study will be limited to Shagari Local Government Area of Sokoto State. It is delimited to two districts of the Local Government Area namely, Dandin-Mahe and Shagari. The target population are parents, male and female from 18 years and above.
1.7. Operational definition of terms
A nomad (Greek: vouac, nomas, plural vouaoec, nomaes; meaning one roaming about for pasture, pastoral life), commonly known as an itinerant in modern day contexts, is a member of a community of people who move from one place to another rather than settling permanently in one location. There are estimated 30-40 million nomads in the world. (UNESCO,2007)
Most nomads travel in groups of families called bands or tribes. These groups are based on kinship and marriage ties or on formal agreements of cooperation. A council of adult males makes most of the decision, though some tribes have chiefs who overseer he affairs of the community.
A rootless, no domestic, and roving lifestyle. Movement in which a population shift from site to site between seasons in a relatively unpredictable manner. Differs from migration in that individuals do not move each year to defined breeding and wintering ranges, and may not even move every year.
A form of social organization where people and animals move from place to place in search of pasture. The itinery of movement may take the form of routine pattern but, as rainfall varies, there may be movement away from this route in. True nomads have no fixed abode and no sedentary agriculture. Semi nomads like some Australian Aborigines wander for some of the years and grow crop for the rest of the year.
Olokede (2004), observed that Nomadic education is a planned programme introduced by the Federal Government to ensure education for all. It is designed to acclimatize the beneficiaries into effective participation in the national development. The constant move of the nomads in search of green land for their cattle has made it difficult to integrate their children into conventional school.
After independence, concerted efforts were made by both the states and the federal government at different levels to settle the nomads (Daramola, 1994) for example the federal government under General Gowon in 1970s attempted to settle the herdsmen in some states of the federation. It was during the regime of general Ibtahim Babangida when the national cap was put on nomadic education. The federal government lunched the programmed on 1st November 1988 by the then minister of education in person of Professor Jibril Aminu
Pastoralist nomads are nomads moving between pastures. Nomadic pastoralism is thought to have developed in three stages that accompanied population growth and an increase in the complexity of social organization. Sadr (2010) has proposed the following stages.
- Pastoralism: This is a mixed economy with a symbiosis within the family
- Agro pastoralism: this is when symbiosis is between segments or class within an ethnic group
- True nomadism: this is when symbiosis is a regional level, generally between specialized nomadic and agricultural populations.
The pastoralism are sedentary to a certain area, as they move between the permanent springs, summer, autumn and winter (or dry wet season) pastures for their livestock. The nomads moved depending on the availability of resources.
Migrant fisher folk
Migrant fisher folk with highly developed skills, who are solely dependent on the fish resources for their livelihood could be very important agents in the sustainable development and management of the artisanal fisheries sector, provided that their potential is recognized and used by the host government authorities.
There are many people who are involved in the migrant farming industry. Migrant farm workers are agricultural workers who move often within a yearly period, for employment purposes. The families of migrant farm worker move to follow the planting. Most of these of families are second and third generation migrant families. These families are usually very poor. The workers and their families are seen in literature as an invisible” group who are the most disadvantage and at risk, they are not seen nor heard and nor helped. Children of migrant farm workers are an extremely vulnerable population of children, these children face transient lifestyle. The lifestyle often begins at birth, and interferes with any hope for a stable education Eric (2003 P.12).