INFLUENCE OF PARENTAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS ON THE INCIDENCE OF CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPIL IN EDUCATION ZONE
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1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Justification of the study
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Scope and limitation of the study
1.8 Definition of terms
1.9 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
The study sought to find out the influence of parental socio-economic status on the incidence of child abuse and neglect among primary school pupils in Aguata education zone of Anambra State. Three major attributes of socio-economic status (parents’ income, parents’ education and parents’ occupation) were considered. The study adopted Ex-post facto research design. Three research questions and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Sample consisted of 200 primary six pupils drawn from schools in Aguata education zone through simple random sampling. The instrument used for data collection was parental socio-economic status and incidence of child abuse and neglect questionnaire. The finding of the study revealed that parents’ level of income significantly influences the incidence of child abuse and neglect. It was also revealed that parents’ level of education significantly influences the incidence of child abuse and neglect. Furthermore, it was discovered that parent’s occupation significantly influences the incidence of child abuse and neglect.
- Background of the study
Procreation is a phenomenon that ensures the survival and continuity of a nation. However, the rearing pattern of the children that are products of wedlock is a crucial task that is significant in determining the quality of citizens that make up a particular society. It is disappointing to note that juvenile cases and other social vices that characterized our society today are traceable to bad child patterns of many homes. Children who have passed through such homes were either battered, abandoned, or abused in any other form. They were consequently toughened and eventually become liabilities to the community rather than assets. In Nigeria today, the rate of child abuse and neglect have assumed a worrisome and alarming proportion (Semenitani, 1998). Nigeria recognizes education as a fundamental human right it as pivotal for the attainment of self-fulfillment and national development (GoK 2007; MoE 2006; Children Act Cap 586 2001).The Importance of education is considered by the United Nations as a basic human rights and as an instruments used for achieving social equality and higher economic growth (UNICEF 1992). Governments use education as a tool for fighting ignorance, poverty and disease. It is a key factor for socio-economic developments (Todaro 1982). It is therefore used, as a means for training and producing human resources needed to manage the economic, social and political sector of the country. There has been increased investment on education. Although literature review has some variations on the role of education, most scholars agree that educational institutions impart knowledge, skills, traditional beliefs and attitudes which are essential for the preservation and continuity of life in the society. It is a means of enhancing social development (Lipman-Blumen 1984). It has also been realized that economic implication in education leads to higher output, higher wages, and charges in distribution of earned income between the rich and the poor, and leads to economic mobility (Schultz, 1989; Colcolough and Lewin; 1993 and Thurow, (1997) (Scharf and Shetty,1972). Educational activities are geared towards ensuring that students achieve mastery of educational objectives. In school , the extent to which these objectives have been achieved, is determined by their level of peer pressure, time management as students’ success are reflected in their academic performance. Peers play a large role in the social and emotional development of adolescents Allen (2005). Their influence begins at an early age and increases through the teenage years, it is natural, healthy and important for adolescent to have and rely on friends as they grow and mature. However, in spite of the important role of education, many children are not participating in the education because of child labour.According to (Uwezo Kenya 2011), it is estimated that about 130 million children worldwide do not attend school because they are working. This means that Child labour denies many children their basic human right to education, and in turn prevents many countries from achieving the millennium development goals of eradicating poverty and achieving education for all. All children regardless of their race social economic status and religion have rights which must be safeguarded by those who care for them and especially their parents, caregivers, teachers and the government. It is only when children’s rights are taken care of that they will realize their full potential (K.I.E, 2006). Failure to provide children with basic needs such as love, care, security and stimulation amounts to child neglect which is one of the most common forms of child abuse.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Child abuses persist even though laws and standards to eliminate it in Nigeria exist. The government of Nigeria introduced Free primary education (FPE) in 2004 so as to ensure access to education by all children. Inspite of these efforts, the participation of pupils in primary education is still low in our locality. This problem is brought about by child abuses. Though so many researches have been conducted in Africa and Nigeria, the available research tends to address child abuse in general with little reference on its effect in child’s academic performances. It is against this background that this study is set to study the influence of parent socio-economic status on the incidence of child abuse and neglect among primary school pupil in education zone.
- OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study is to ascertain the influence of parental socio-economic status on the incidence of child abuse and neglect among primary school pupils in education zone. But to aid the completion of the study, the following specific objectives were put forward by the researcher
- To ascertain the effect of parental socio-economic status on the incidence of child abuse
- To examine the role of parental economic status on the incidence of child abuse
- To examine the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child abuse among primary school pupils
- To examine the impact of neglect on pupil academic performance
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
To aid the completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: parental socio-economic status has no effect on the incidence of child abuse
H1: parental socio-economic status has an effect on the incidence of child abuse
H02: there is no significant relationship between parental socio-economic status and child abuse among primary school pupils
H2: there is a significant relationship between parental socio-economic status and child abuse among primary school pupils.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is believed that at the completion of the studies, the findings will be of great importance to the parent of this pupils as the of the study seek to explore the disadvantages of child abuse among primary school pupils. The study will also be of importance to the management of primary schools in the education zone as the study seek to examine the effect of neglect and abuse on the pupil academic performance, the study will also be of great importance to researcher, academia, students and the general public as the study will add to the pool of existing literature, the study will also be of importance to researchers who intends to embark on study on a similar topic on the subject matter.
- SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the influence of parental socio-economic status on the incidence of child abuse and neglect among primary school pupils in education zone, but in the cause of the study, there were some factors which limited the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
- c) FINANCE: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.
1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Parental influence is defined as any opinion, attitude, or action (other than direct tutoring) that somehow shapes or molds the child’s reading attitudes.
Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person’s work experience and of an individual’s or family’ seconomic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation
Child abuse or child maltreatment is physical, sexual, or psychological maltreatment or neglect of a child or children, especially by a parent or other caregiver
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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