INFLUENCE OF PARENT’S SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ABAK
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1.1 Background of the Study
Socio- economic status is a definite background variables that represents a features of the social structure in society (Oakes & Rossi, 2013). It is a fact that families where the parents are privileged educationally, socially and economically, promote a higher level of achievement in their offspring. They also give higher levels of psychological support for their children through enriched atmosphere that promote and encourage the development of skills required for success at school (Williams, 2010). The socio-economic status of a child is usually determined by parental educational level, parental occupational status, income level and parent social class (Jeynes, 2012).
It is understood that low socio-economic state negatively and depressingly affects student’s academic achievement because due to low socio-economic status, a student’s does not access important resources and this generates additional stress and tension at home (Eamon, 2005). According to Parson, Stephanie and Deborah (2011), socio-economic status is an expression which is used to differentiate between people’s relative status in the community regarding family income, political power, educational background and occupational status. Saifi and Mehmood (2011) state that socio-economic status is a combined measure of economic and social position of an individual or family relative to others on the basis of income, educational and occupation.
Suleman et al (2012) found that children whose socio-economic status was strong show better academic performance and those with poor socio-economic status showed poor and unsatisfactory academic performance.
Heyneman (2009) stated that for many years researchers have revealed that students do not show effective performance in school whose parental socio-economic status is low. The academic achievement of students is negatively correlated with the low parental socio-economic status level as it prevents the individual in gaining access to the sources and resources of learning (Duck, 2010). Most of the researchers and experts believed that is why they do not show better academic performance (Adams, 1996). Faroog et al, (2011) concluded that the higher level of socio-economic status is the best indicator which plays a fundamental role in promoting quality of students’ achievement.
A family’s socio-economic status correlates with academic achievement of their sibling at secondary level that status, depends deeply with family social class level, families with high socio-economic status often are more successful in preparing their young one’s for school because of the access they enjoy to harness resources responsible to promote and support young children development. They are able to provide their young children with quality of necessary education requirements and equipments. With various learning activities at home since they have easy access to information regarding their children’s health as well as social, emotional and cognitive development, the families enjoying higher socio-economic status are informed enough to help children perform better at school.
American Psychology Association (2011) describes the relationship of family socio-economic status to children’s readiness for school. Across all socio-economic groups, parents face major challenges when it comes to providing optimal care and Education for their children. For families in poverty line, these challenges can be formidable. Sometimes, when basic necessities are lacking, parents must place top priority on housing, food, clothing and health care. Educational toys, games, and books may appears to be luxuries and parent may not have the time, energy, or knowledge to find innovative and less expensive ways to faster young children’s development. Shedon (2013) observes that even in families with above average income parents often lack the time and energy to invest fully in their children’s preparation for school and they sometimes face a limited array of options for high-quality child care both before their children start school and during the early school years. Foroog et al (2011) concluded that the higher level of socio-economic status is the best indictor which plays a fundamental role in promoting quality of student’s achievement. Therefore, this paper was designed to explore the effects of parent’s socio-economic status and students academic performance in commerce at Abak Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Poor performance in Secondary Schools in Akwa Ibom State and more especially in Abak local Government Area has been associated with high level of indiscipline from students, lack of commitment from parents, teachers and inefficient administration in secondary schools (Ministry of Education, 2012). In order to improve performance, much has been done to improve the level of discipline in many of these schools and at the same time the ministries of education and other stakeholders have done much to put in place efficient administration. In spite of all these; students performance has not significantly improved. Therefore, it is important to establish other factors that influence academic performance in the division outside those that are perceived. Such factors may emanate from parental factors from which students comes from as they received inadequate attention by researchers. This study therefore focuses on the influence of parental socio-economic status and student academic performance in commerce in Secondary Schools in Abak Local Government Area.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The major purpose of this study was to explore the influence of parent’s socio-economic status on students academic performance in Secondary schools in Abak. Specifically, the purpose was broken down into the following objectives thus:
- To compare the influence of high level of Parents on students’ academic performance in secondary schools in Abak.
- To determine the influence of high SES of parent on students’ academic performance by gender in secondary schools in Abak.
- To compare the influence of low SES of parents on students’ academic performance in secondary schools in Abak.
1.4 Research Questions
To carry out a meaningful research work, the following questions were raised.
- What is the mean achievement score of students in commerce as stratified by the SES of their parents in Abak Local Government Area?
- What is the mean achievement score of students in the high SES by gender in Abak Local Government Area?
- What is the mean achievement score of student in the low SES by gender in commerce in schools in Abak Local Government Area?
The following null hypotheses formulated were tested at 0.05 level of significance.
Ho1: There is no significant different between the mean achievement scores of student in commerce as stratified by the SES of their parents in Abak Local Government Area.
Ho2: There is no significant different between the mean achievement score of students by gender in the high SES in Commerce in Abak Local Government Area.
Ho3: There is no significant differences between the mean achievement score of students by gender in the low SES in commerce in Abak Local Government Area.
1.6 Significance of the Study
It is hopeful that the finding of this study would expose some factors that might be responseible for poor performance of students in school. The identified areas where government at different levels could come in to bridge the gap of educational attainment of children from low and high income earned background in the society. It could also be beneficial to teachers, parents, private organization as a whole. It could also offer some information to other researcher who may be carrying out similar investigation on the parents’ socio-economic status and students’ academic performance in other Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State and Nigeria as a whole.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
The research work is delimited to parents’ socio-economic status and students’ academic performance of students in commerce in secondary schools in Abak Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Many factors could contribute to the students’ academic performance in commerce but for the purpose of this study, three variables of the structure of social class; upper class parents, middle class parents and lower parents are selected for the study. The scope of the study covered only public secondary schools in Abak Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State during 2018 academic sessions.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Socio-economic status refers to as a finely graded hierarchy of social positions which can be used to illustrate a persons’ overall social position or reputation
Academic performance may be seen simply as the record of outcomes achieved.
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