PERCEPTION OF PEOPLE TOWARDS TRANSIT ADVERTISEMENT IN CITIES
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The objective of this study was to investigate the perception of people towards transit advertisement. It should be mentioned that moving object advertising campaigns are not new, and in this day of digital printing with digital stickers and digital devices like outdoor LED lights put on cars and buses, they are becoming increasingly common. These and other factors made it necessary for this paper to investigate how Lagos Metropolis residents feel about transit advertisements, an outdoor form of advertising that is particularly prevalent in Lagos, Abuja, and Port Harcourt. Do people actually pay attention to these kinds of advertisements, and if they do, does it affect their purchasing habits like others? Three theories served as the foundation for the study: recency, diffusion of innovation, and perception. For this study, a quantitative approach called survey research was used. The respondents, who were selected from Lagos, were asked to reply to the questionnaire. Both probability and non-probability sampling strategies are used in the study. Every member of the population or sampling fame has an equal chance of getting chosen thanks to probability. But two local governments Ikeja and Ikorodu were only chosen at random, and then respondents were recruited in each area based on convenience; a total of 300 respondents 150 women and another 150 men were chosen. The number of retrieved copies of the questionnaire was 252, representing 84% response rate. Findings show that people in Lagos metropolis attach great importance to transit advertisement; hence, it influences their perception in the way they respond to the advertisement placed in and outside buses and other mobile means of transportation (transit advertisement). The study argues that as the major objective of advertisement is to promote and sell goods and services. In order to eliminate the need for additional justification from the target audience on the advantages of the specific products and services, advertisers should make sure that their products’ ultimate goal is made clear.
1.1 Background of the study
Advertising is an impersonal means of distributing messages about a designated sponsor’s goods and services with the intention of reminding, convincing, and educating potential customers to make a purchase. Advertising, according to Ewuola (2008), is any activity that involves putting a sponsored, non-personal message about a company or product in front of an audience and getting payment for it. For the advertiser and the intended audience, advertising is essential. Akinrosoye (2012) adds, “Advertising is an integral part of everyday life,” to support the preceding claim. It is a widely used marketing strategy in society. Advertising is defined by Akinrosoye (2012), citing the Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria (APCON), as a type of media communication about goods, services, or concepts that is funded by a designated sponsor.
“Any, paid form of non-personal presentation of ideas, goods, and services by an identified sponsor” is how Shruthi (2014) defines advertising. A billboard, a television commercial, a newspaper or magazine graphic, a billboard, or a moving item like a bus, car, train, etc. can all be considered advertisements. It is aimed to the broader audience rather than specific individuals.
Advertising is not undertaken by management just for fun or to keep products or services. It is principally involved in persuasion or advocacy even apparently just giving us information, using media that are paid for it to get through to the mass audience with the identity of the advertisers being clear.
However, it is stated that advertising is exposed through a non-personal medium this lead to the careful look at the concept of advertising media which include but not limited to the following according to (Kenneth and Donald, 2007): Radio, Television, Newspaper, Magazine, Billboard, Transit media and Posters etc.
To this end, effort is dwelled on outdoor advertising particularly the transit adverts. Therefore, the term; “Outdoor Advertising” corresponds to any advertisements located in open air, i.e., outdoor areas. An outdoor advertisement is the only advertisement medium to which we are exposed involuntarily. While some efforts involved for other kind of advertisements, outdoor advertising is unique in which we experience direct and involuntary exposure to messages.
Kurt (2006) says advertising began with outdoors through window displays, signboards, billboards, posters and other forms of outdoor advertising, advertisers have sought to capture the attention of people waiting for the bus, catching a train, stuck in traffic or walking through shopping precincts other forms of outdoor advertising media include but not limited to transits advert.
The research therefore aims at examining the use, contribution and influence of transit advertisement which is one of the outdoor advertising that is still invoking in this era particularly in the cities like Lagos. However, over the last decade or two, there have been significant changes in both the quantity and form of outdoor advertising when billboard advert is now going digital while transit advert is going more attractive with digital sticker printing.
Transit advertisement is growing at a fast rate, creating competition for traditional media. The new fad in advertising is evolving from being a communication wrap-around on company cars, mass transits and commercial vehicles, among others. The trend is offering individual car owners an opportunity to earn some income by allowing their cars to be used for advertising communications.
Transit advertisement according to Okolo (2013) “involves placement of adverts inside public transport vehicles. There are various ways in which this can be done. Adverts can be placed via installed LED screens; advertisers can also place posters on different compartments in the bus”.
Okolo further posits that; “advertisers can display their innovative prowess by designing creative adverts and images. Creativity is the hallmark of this type of advertising. The medium provides advertisers with the possibility to play around different elements within the vehicle”. Hence, the benefit of transit advertisement cannot be undermined as it combines the basic sensory elements of sound and visual.
However, this medium of advertising has garnered attention within the Lagos metropolis with the introduction of BRT and LAG buses. BRT buses were introduced in Lagos as part of the state government’s Mega City project. It serves as a solution to the transportation challenges faced by commuters within the city. Many passengers board these buses because they are very cheap when compared with the traditional yellow public buses. In recent times, LED screens have been installed in these BRT buses, giving advertisers ample opportunity to take their brands directly to consumers.
Conclusively, transit advertisement is a superb way to showcase a particular products and services to thousands of consumers daily. One BRT bus loads an average of 1,000 passengers daily and 3.6 million passengers monthly thereby offering advertisers the opportunity to reach a wide, diverse and heterogeneous audience. This, however, provides advertisers with the opportunity to attract new customers while fostering loyalty among existing consumers. It is against this backdrop that this research work aims at analyzing the perception of people in Lagos metropolis towards transit advertisement.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
As the name implies “transit medium” of advertising showing that advert message will be transporting from one location to the other, which is a common medium in Lagos Metropolis with inscription on city buses like BRT among others.
By and large, this kind of advert media present advert messages in a transient manner i.e consumers may not be able to get desired information about the product[s] when the vehicle move away. Other problem associated with this medium is that such advert is limited only to where [location] the vehicle able to move to. If the bus moves within Oshodi, other people in another location may not have access to such advert. Yet, it is one of the cheapest and easiest advertising medium that can reach thousands within hours. For instance, products and services message are delivered all over the town and get mass audience exposure.
VacantBoard (n.d) writes stress that BRT Transit advertising is an effective and cost efficient form of outdoor advertising and it offers a great way to reach the urban audience and get your message throughout the city as buses circulate the city landscape and outlying suburban areas and your creative message will be seen multiple times by thousands of people in cars as well as pedestrians with daily impression estimated to 2000 while monthly impression is amount to 62000.
This research study, therefore, intends to critically appraise the situation and how it has affected the practitioners, target audience who are mostly commuters of BRT/LAGBUS and other means of transportation available in Lagos metropolis. It will also looks at how transit advertisement has shaped the attitude, belief and perception of people in Lagos metropolitan areas about products and services being exposed to on a daily basis to know the extent which they are noticeable.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
- To examine the extent to which people in Lagos are exposed to advertising message via transit media like BRT.
- To find out whether the commuters of BRT are satisfied with the quality of adverts messages available to them.
1.4 Research Questions
Below are some of the research questions that enable the research tailor and provide answers to some of the problems arise in the problem statement.
- To what extent are people in Lagos exposed to advertising message via transit media like BRT?
- Are the commuters of BRT satisfied with the quality of adverts available to them?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The significance of this research study aims at revealing to advertising practitioners, advertisers, corporate organizations, manufacturing industries, advertising agencies and the public at large on the attitude and perception of people in Lagos metropolis towards transit advertisement.
However, the study will also be relevant to students, academician and those who want to engage in similar topic. This will invariably allow such researchers to pin-point the weak area(s) of the work and at the same time make correction(s) for the purpose of future research.
1.6 Scope of the Study
Although, the primary aim and objective of this research work is to analyze the attitude and perception of people in Lagos metropolis towards transit advertisement.
Efforts will be made in looking at the demographic factors people living in Lagos metropolitan areas who will respond to the questionnaire that will be supplied. Experience, Educational Background, Age, Sex, Profession e.t.c will be considered before the distribution of research instrument.
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