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1.1 Background of the Study
Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) has become very important material and has a significant impact on how we see the world and how we live our lives. Today ICT has its place in education and the world cannot undermine ICT. Information and communication technologies (ICT) are electronic technologies used for information storage and retrieval. Development is partly determined by the ability to establish a synergistic interaction between technological innovation and human values. The rapid rate at which ICTs have evolved since the mid 20th century, the convergence and pervasiveness of ICTs, give them a strong role in development and globalization (Nwagwu, 2006). ICTs have a significant impact on all areas of human activity (Brakel and Chisenga, 2003).
The unprecedented advances in interactivity and multimedia capabilities together with a myriad of emerging technologies have enabled the creation of virtual learning environments that could be utilized to boost the development of skills among secondary school students.
The utilization and integration of ICT tools can indeed assist students in acquiring some skills as well as enhance the quality of their learning experience. Classroom dialogue can now extend beyond the time and space constraints of class time (Frayer, 1997). Carmen et al., (2003) say that integrating ICT tools in teaching can lead to increased students’ learning competencies and increased opportunities for communication.
Almost all universities in Nigeria are trying to develop the use of information and communication technology (ICT), and especially virtual learning environments (VLEs) to underpin teaching and learning (Saunders 2002, Jenkins et al., 2003,). Most of the activities are aimed towards support for students who are still required to attend face-to-face classes on a regular basis.
There are many justifications for this activity, some of which relate to the experiences and lifestyles of students. For example young school leavers are now coming to school having frequently taken part in classes at school that make extensive use of technology (Pittard et al., 2003). Mature students, who are or may have been in employment, are quite likely to understand the significance of technology for their future career and will increasingly expect to experience its use across all subjects in higher education. In addition it is often predicted that students will require more flexible patterns of attendance as they try to balance their education against family priorities and commitments and/or earn the money that they need to pay for their education (Butzin 2000, Reiser 2001, Hoffman 2002).
There are some problems on Integration and Utilization of ICT that hinders good learning process that will look into in the course of this research.
- Inadequate funding
- Lack of Qualified teachers
- Lack of Basic infrastructures and Resources
- Poor policy formulation and Implementation
1.1.1 Inadequate Funding
Gbadamosi (2006) note that inadequate funding is a major challenge, because it has negatively affected many areas of education in Nigeria. Areas it has affected include funding of ICT projects, training and retraining of teachers, provision of technological infrastructure, development and maintenance of software packages and electricity. The current level of funding in Nigeria with reduced budgetary allocation to the education sector is a major constraint in the provision of ICT equipment computers, its accessories, software packages and maintenance. More so, with the slogan of global economic “melt down”, available funds are used to satisfy other vital needs instead of investing them in ICT development in secondary schools.
1.1.2 Lack of Qualified Teachers
In secondary schools, there is lack of qualified personnel to manage available systems, develop and use Information communication technology facilities for the teaching-learning process. However, in schools where these personnel exist, they lack skills in designing and delivering courses/lectures in electronic formats. Ibadin (2001) argue that there is acute shortage of well-trained ICT handlers. There is need to provide adequate manpower, train and retrain personnel on ICT programme management. This will help to ensure that these personnel become conversant with ICT techniques and strategies.
1.1.3 Lack of Basic Infrastructures/Resources
In every educational system, certain basic facilities are required. The National Policy on Education (2004) posits that the government should provide facilities and necessary infrastructure for the promotion of ICT at all levels of education. However, in secondary schools, there is inadequate or non-existence of physical facilities and material resources such as computer rooms, furniture, electricity or electric generators. Electricity is essential for the operation of all ICT appliances without which they cannot function effectively.
1.1.4 Poor Policy Formulation and Implementation
There is lack of well-articulated educational policy by the Nigerian government. More attention is given to other sectors than to education. This is posing problems to the development of ICT education in secondary schools. Gbadamosi (2006) looked at affecting ICT project training, of infrastructure, electricity and others.
Ibadin (2001) talked about the shortage of well-trained ICT handlers and he said that there is need to provide adequate trained personnel on ICT management. This project research will look at the psychological and social variables, how the two variables can affect the process of integration/ utilization of ICT in secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area. The independent variables in this project work are the social and psychological variables while the sub-variables to be used in this work are attitude, motivation, self concept and peer influence.
1.2 Statement of Problem
It has been pointed out by Abiri and Daramola (1991) that there is no way a research can be carried out until a problem is recognized, deliberated upon and form in a way it will be useful. The utilization of ICT in the teaching and learning process in Secondary Schools has been an issue that needs to be addressed in order to determine the extent to which ICT integration has impacted on knowledge delivery. The Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) has done her best in building ICT laboratories and equipping them with ICT facilities in secondary schools in some location in Nigeria, but the question is are these ICT facilities being used during the teaching process?
The policy on ICT has been developed which aims at empowering the students with ICT skills and preparing them for global competitiveness and also encouraging capacity building of ICT in the country’s secondary schools. The utilization of ICT has also been made mandatory at some levels of educational institutions through adequate financial provision for tools and resources. In spite of the effort of the Federal Government of Nigeria in promoting ICT integration into teaching and learning in secondary Schools, the attainment of objectives of ICT in these schools seems to suffer some defects as observed from poor performance in ICT utilization among students going to higher institutions. This problem could also be as a result of poor accessibility of ICT resources by the students in secondary schools. If ICT tools are adequately accessed, they will be utilized for both academic and non-academic activities. This will bring about high degree of infusion into the various subjects in the curriculum of secondary Schools. Hence, the purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which ICT facilities are accessed, utilized and integrated into the curriculum of secondary Schools in Nigeria. Expected findings will be significant to students, teachers, policy makers, literature, theory and practice of ICT.
1.3 Purpose of Study
The purpose of this study is to investigate how different variables affect ICT integration/utilization into secondary schools in Etinan local government area, Akwa Ibom State.
- Investigate how self concept affects the integration and utilization of ICT in secondary schools in Etinan L. G. A. Akwa Ibom State.
- Determine the extent peer influence hinder Integration and Utilization of ICT in secondary schools in Etinan L.G.A. Awka Ibom State.
- Determine how social control affect students’ performance towards ICT integration and utilization based on educational background.
- Determine how motivation affects students’ performance towards ICT integration/utilization in secondary schools in Etinan L.G.A. Akwa Ibom State.
1.4 Significance of the Study
Research findings from this study will be beneficial to teachers as it will expose the flaws of the students and the teachers will know what method to use in making sure that the student’s attitude does not deprive them of utilization of the provided ICT materials in the classroom. Such flaws when found can from the basis for students improvement on utilization of ICT tools in the classroom.
The result of this study will be useful to the people who are in-charge of integrating ICT into secondary schools (curriculum planners) so that they will know the right tools that will suit some schools and the right way about the integration process. The research findings will help the government officials and policy makers, in formulating effective planning and implement the process of ICT integration/utilization in secondary schools.
In addition, parents, students, administrators, curriculum planners, school authorities who will have access to this study, will know the appropriate steps to take or measures relating to poor integration/utilization ICT in secondary schools. This study attempts to explore the effects of teachers’ educational beliefs and ICT-related variables on teachers ICT use the classroom. Specifically, the study is guided by the following research question
1.5 Research Questions
In the course of this study, it was important to raise the following questions:
- What is the extent of relationship between student motivation and student attitude to ICT integration and utilization?
- To what extent, does self concept relate with student attitude to integration and Utilization of ICT in secondary schools?
- To what extent does peer influence relate with student attitude to integration and utilization of ICT in secondary schools?
- How does social control relate with student attitude to integration and utilization of ICT in secondary schools?
1.6 Research Hypotheses
- Ho: There is no significance difference between students’ motivation towards ICT integration and utilization based on their educational background.
Ha: There is a significance difference between students’ motivation towards ICT integration and utilization based on their educational background.
- Ho: There is no significance influence between self concept and ICT integration/utilization.
Ha: There is a significance influence between self concept and ICT integration/utilization.
- Ho: There is no significance relationship between peer influence and ICT integration/utilization.
Ha: There is a significance relationship between peer influence and ICT integration/utilization.
- Ho: There is no significance relationship between social control of the student and Integration/utilization of ICT in secondary schools.
Ha: There is a significance relationship between social control of the student and Integration/utilization of ICT in secondary schools.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
This study is a study that is limited to only students of SS2 classes in two public secondary schools in Etinan L.G.A, Akwa Ibom State. Findings therefore apply potentially to everyone within this framework. Generally, this study is limited by its sample size and how they achieved academic success and their experiences.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
- The researcher experience difficulties during the period of administering of instrument in schools due to the fact that the students were writing examination at the time of administering the instrument.
- One of the limitations of the study was non-availability of measuring instrument which prompted the researcher to develop and use a standard instrument named “Students Psycho-Social Variables Questionnaire (SPSVQ) and Students Attitude to ICT Integration and Utilization Questionnaire (SAIIUQ)”. This was instrument used in data collection and analysis.
1.9 Operational Definitions of Terms
Information and Communication Technology (ICT):
ICT is an extended term for information technology(IT) which stresses the role of unidentified communications and the integration of telecommunication(telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage and audio–visual systems, which enable users to access store, transmit and manipulate information
This is the use of ICT to introduce, reinforce, supplement and extend skills. At the same time ICT Integration has been fueling contention among stakeholders and administrators of ICT in schools and other training environments.
In the context of this study utilization refers to the capacity to make use of the ICT resources available fully in the information Society.
Barriers and Solution of ICT Use:
Frederick and Lowe (2006) showed that student mobility, special needs and anxiety over standardized test result are the main challenges associated with ICT use. These challenges can be solved by providing more authentic group and problem based learning activities, and adequate learning support (Whelan 2008). Whelan (2008) also identify another barriers including technical skill that reduced access to ICT in School, and insufficient number of academic advisors and lack timely feedback from instructors, also reduced interaction with peers and instructors. Therefore, we have to facilitate the learning process i.e. more induction, orientation, and training for student an increased emphasis on the importance of instructor access and effective administration; and the expansion of podcasting and online conferencing tools. In general, capacity building, curriculum development, infrastructure, policy, and government support are required in order to lower student barriers and improve the effectiveness of ICT use in the classroom. In addition, Castro Sánchez and Alemán (2011) encourage students to acquire specific technical skills to facilitate learning in ICT environments.
This is the science of behavior and mind embracing all aspect of conscious and unconscious experience as well as thought. It is an academic discipline and a social science which seeks to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases.
It also studies how language variety differs between groups separated by social variables (e.g. ethnicity, religion, status, gender, level of education, age etc.) and how creation and adherence to these rules is used to categorize individual in social or socioeconomic classes.
A predisposition or tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain idea, object, person or situation. It influences an individual choice of action and response to challenges, incentive and rewards called stimuli.
ICT in Education:
This refers to the process of using ICT in the teaching and learning process maybe in classroom or any place. We can also say that it is the process of using gadgets in education process.
Electronic Learning is a type of learning that utilizes electronic technologies to access educational curriculum outside of a traditional classroom. In most cases, it refers to a course program or degree delivered online. It is a learning system based on formalized teaching but with the help of electronic resources. The use of computer and internet forms the major components of E-learning.
From an educational viewpoint, motivation is a multifaceted constructs that encompasses a variety of meaningful connotations pertaining to learning and educational development.
Pintrich et al (1990) identified three main categories of concepts relevant to motivation in the educational setting viz. Personal beliefs, purpose for engagement and affective reactions in relation to the activity.
This concept refers to the accomplishment of an important developmental task. Several authors have stated that cognitive competence in school and other social settings are markers of, and a prerequisite for, resiliency.
Academic achievement can be define as the scores of students performance in a teacher-made test used for the study or a performance test developed for the study.
These are statements that specify what learners will know or be able to do as a result of a learning activity.
Perception is a way people notice things, especially with the sense. Also it is the ability to understand the true nature of something. It can also mean the ways in which something is regarded or interpreted.
The act or process of combining two or more things so that they can work together perfectly.
The term “social control” in this study refers to students’ perception of their family’s management, particularly family members’ attitudes regarding the value of education and their involvement in school activities, and their relationships with school personnel.
Thus the education and technology are sharp weapons for Nigeria to compete with rest of the world to bring socio-economic process. The rapid growth and expansion of ICT in education is more important than our technology investments in the country. A country like Nigeria has tremendous potential to control and monitor the cyber society for its own developments than other states. Nigeria has a robust telecommunications environment to support ICT related developments, which support economic growth of the country. As such, it is an ideal place to setup information and communication technologies (ICT) in all sectors to enable socio-economic developments in the country.