STREET TRADING AND RAPE AMONG TEENAGERS IN NIGERIA
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables ix
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.2 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
2.3 CAUSES OF STREET HAWING
2.3.1 CAUSES OF STREET TRADING AND CHILD LABOUR
2.4 IMPLICATIONS OF CHILD LABOUR AND STREET HAWKING
2.5 SOCIAL, POLITICAL AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF CHILD LABOUR AND STREET TRADING
2.6 CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT
2.6.1 LEGAL FRAMEWORK AGAINST CHILD ABUSE
2.7 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.8 IMPACT OF STREET HAWKING ON SOCIAL AND PHYSICAL WELLBEING OF ADOLESCENTS
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.1 SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION
3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
3.4 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING PROCEDURE
3.5 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION
3.6 VALIDATION OF THE RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
3.7 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
PRESENTATION ANALYSIS INTERPRETATION OF DATA
4.2 DATA ANALYSIS
SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
There is no doubt today that, street trading and cases of rape have become a global phenomenon and a global concern. The estimates for street traders in Africa shows 20% of the traders being children, between the ages of Ten (10) and fourteen (14) years. As such, children have come to comprise 17% of Africa’s total labour force. Street traders in Nigeria usually operate in high risk and unfriendly environment, in which they are constantly exposed to hazardous conditions that most often results in bodily harm, injures, abuse, rape and even death. The informal economy in Nigeria accounts for about a third of the 50 million labor force out of the 123.9 million people in 1999 (Adeyinka, et al., 2006, p.5), who are actively engaged in mostly retail trading such as, the operation of front shops, stalls, kiosks, or hawking (Simon, 2008).
A street trader is a person who offers goods for sale to the public without having a permanent selling built-up structure. Street trader may be stationary in the sense that they occupy a particularlocation on the pavements or other public/private spaces, or they may be mobile and carry their goods on push carts or in baskets (Bhowmik, 2014). Street children engaged in work or employment on a regular basis with the aim of earning a livelihood for themselves or for their families. Such activities are often carried out at the expense of schooling. Therefore, children are not adequately prepared for the future in a modernized society (UNICEF, 2014; FME, 2014). In Nigeria, there has been an increase in the number of children trading or working in the urban areas which affects the acquisition of education which can be traced to a lot of factors which according to Dustmann (2003), are: cost of schooling, characteristics of child, parents, households and community, location and distance of formal education centre.
Due to the low socio-economic status of most families in Nigeria and the high rateof poverty, most parents cannot help but push their wards into the streets where theyspend long hours, at the mercy of environmental elements, selling pure water (sachetwater), fruits, confectioneries, beverages and so on; so that the proceeds maycontribute to family upkeep. These have increased the rate of human trafficking, kidnapping, rape, and urban environmental problems. Informal street trading is considered to be associated with being unsightly, vast amounts oflitter, obstruction and congestion of pavements, crime, unhygienic surroundings anddeterioration of infrastructure, Babayemi and Dauda (2002).The present government of Akwa Ibom State is determined to clean up the City of Uyo and hopes to reach a point where there are no informal street traders trading on the streets but rather operating in formal markets only. These interventions may bring order and efficiency to the inner city but may also create isolated unnatural urban spaces with no vibrancy. The City of Uyo is controlling and managing informal street trade within the inner city so as to clean up the crime and grime andmake it better and more attractive to investments. Nonetheless, this does not mean that there should completely be no traders trading on the streets, but rather they can be managed and also abide with the city by-laws so as not to kill the vibrancy of the inner city. This study will therefore investigate street trading and rape among teenagers in Uyo local government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
- STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Nigeria being amongst the developing economies in the world with the accompanyingeffects of unemployment, poor infrastructural facilities, and insufficient humanempowerment has seen most of her populace living in abject poverty.In the developing countries like Nigeria where there are ineffective machinery to enforce child welfare, majority of the children in the rural area find it difficult to survive as a result of economic status of their parent. Hence, life in thisregion pose a lot of challenges for the children. In coping with these, some of the children engage in various kinds of activities in order to survive. Some of these activities are sometimes harzadous to the health and education of the child. Therefore, street trading is a threat to the continue survival of the society; distort government policy with respect to education of the youth due to high dropout rate. It distorts acquisition of vocational skills and relevant education thereby destroying the economic sector (Okumadewa, 2001). It leads to the abuse of children sexually, and also physical stress due to the age and maturation of the child is affected leading to low concentration at school and breakdown of health of the child. Therefore, this research work is designed to suggest workable solution to the problems of street trading and rape among teenagers in Uyo local government area of Akwa Ibom State.
- OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The primary objective of this study is to examine street trading and rape among teenagers. The specific objectives are;
- To examine the factors responsible for street trading among teenagers in Akwa Ibom State.
- To enlighten people about street trading and rape among teenagers in Akwa Ibom State.
- To bring government attention to street trading and rape among teenagers cases in Uyo metropolis.
- To proffer solution to these factors responsible for street trading and rape among teenagers in Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions were formulated to guide the study;
- Does the government play any major role in minimizing street trading and rape among teenagers’ cases in Akwa Ibom State?
- Does street trading affect the people in Uyo Local Government Area?
- Can Street trading and rape among teenagers cases be minimized in Uyo Local Government Area?
- What are the role of parents in street trading in Uyo local government area?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The major significance of this study is to proffer solution to the menace of street trading and rape among teenagers cases in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. it is hoped that the study will help in minimizing problems associated with street trading and will increase the body of knowledge on the operation of street trading which is in form of sole Proprietorship business, it is also helped that the study will be useful to economic planners, sole proprietors, street traders and decision makers.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is limited to Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. It is to examine street trading and rape among teenagers in Uyo Local Government Area. The validity of this entire result is limited to the accuracy of the information supplied by the respondents.
The researcher encounters some constraints which limited the scope of the study;
FINANCE: Due to the nature of office and business within the scope, the researcher spends a lot of money on visiting, traveling from one location to another, from one office to the other and even had to repeat a visit more than three times to seek for information, all these involves money considering the financial constraint of the researcher and limited resources available to her.
SOURCES OF INFORMATION: Many registered and non-registered staffs of citizens and residents in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State were reluctant to give out or provide information about the research, since they believe that street trading and rape among teenager in Uyo Local Government Area is something very confidential and therefore could not open up to the researcher.
INADEQUATE RECORD KEEPING: Some of the respondents visited were unable to present complete and comprehensive records of their business .while some were not keeping proper records of their business activities and as such could not give adequate and correct information on the effect of vat on their businesses rippling on the economy of Nigeria.
TIME: Time constraint has been another vital limitation and obstacle towards effective realization of the main objectives of this study. Time was really not on my side since I have to combine the little time left with my academic work and preparation.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Street trading: Street trading is defined as the selling or offering for sale of any article in the street. Traders who use the public highway to sell goods or services must have a street trading license to carry out trade from a designated site/pitch and display of goods in front of a shop.
Rape: Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person’s consent. The act may be carried out by physical force, coercion, abuse of authority, or against a person who is incapable of giving valid consent, such as one who is unconscious, incapacitated, has an intellectual disability or is below the legal age of consent.
Street hawking: Street hawking is the commonest form of child labor in Nigeria. Although street hawking is very pervasive, there is the increasing need to fully understand its pattern and effects on those involved in hawking particularly adolescents who combine schooling with hawking.
Poverty: According to the WIKEPEDIA, the free encyclopaedia (2007), poverty is the deprivation of those things that determine the quality of life including food, clothing, shelter and good drinking water, but also such intangible things as the opportunity to learn and enjoy the respect of fellow citizens.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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