IN-SERVICE TRAINING AND TEACHERS PRODUCTIVITY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
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The study investigated in-service training and teachers productivity in secondary schools in Nigeria. Since productivity remains the heart of any venture both in the industry and all sectors. Productivity is always a function of several variables used in a relationship to give desired optimum output. Meanwhile, there have been several insinuations concerning the school system as stakeholders have often complained of poor teacher productivity. One therefore wonders if in-service training and performance appraisal could bring about improved teacher productivity. The study investigated the relationship among in-service training, performance appraisal and the productivity of secondary school teachers in selected secondary schools in Keffi of Nasarawa State. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design. Two hundred (254) students were randomly selected for the study. This selection was done through the simple random sampling technique. The main instrument used for data collection was the questionnaire designed by the researcher with the help of the supervision. Chi-square statistical analysis was employed to test the hypothesis for the study. All hypotheses were subjected to testing of 0.05 level of significance. The result of the analysis reveals that in-service training programme is significantly related to teacher’s productivity in secondary schools. It was concluded that in-service training programme enhances teachers’ productivity in Secondary schools in Keffi Metropolis. The study recommended that government should ensure the implementation of adequate and well planned in service training programme for teachers at all levels of the educational system in Nigeria.
1.1 Background to the Study
The recent developments in the educational sector has forced a reconsideration not only on the content of school curriculum but also of the impact of latest teaching methods and the role of the teachers. Given that schools are learning organisations, and that teachers are the benchmark of an education system, forming an integral part of pupils’ intellectual and social development, the concept of teacher training becomes the key for the successful functioning and survival of the school. Staff training must therefore be based on a need analysis derived from a comparison of actual performance and behavior with required performance and behavior. Staff training is one of the major ways organization invests in the workforce for greater return today and even in the foreseeable future.
In-service training is a planned process whereby the effectiveness of teachers collectively or individually is enhanced in response to new knowledge, new ideas and changing circumstances in order to improve, directly or indirectly the quality of pupils’ education. In-service training has undergone considerable change in the recent years. As a practice, result-driven in service training is concerned with changing behaviour and/or attitudes of teachers, administrators and staff members rather than being concerned with the number of participants in such programs (Ronald, 2004). In-service training is a professional and personal educational activity for teachers to improve their efficiency, ability, knowledge and motivation in their professional work. In-service training offers one of the most promising roads to the improvement of instruction. It includes goal and content, the training process and the context. According to Ong (1993), In-service training is the totality of educational and personal experiences that contribute toward an individual being more competent and satisfied in an assigned professional role.
Productivity according to (Bernolak in Vipinosa, 2015) is the result of efforts exerted and resources utilized in creating a good Productivity. Productivity can be measured as a ratio of output to input (Ajayi & Afolabi, 2012). In the context of the school system, productivity is measured by both efficiency and effectiveness, with the realization of goals and objectives in the school being a function of teacher efficiency and effectiveness (Garret & Poole in Ajayi & Afolabi, 2012). Low productivity in secondary schools reflects on students’ output, such as skills acquired, failure, repetition and dropout rates amongst others that have adverse effects on the society and students.
The need for in-service training in schools is getting more attention for teachers to equip with new knowledge and skills for them to face new challenges and reformation in education. In-service training can enhance the professionalism of teachers who can contribute to the organisation to achieve its goals. The primary purpose of in-service training is to enable teachers to acquire new understanding and instructional skills. It focuses on creating learning environments which enable teachers to develop their effectiveness in the classroom. In the aspect of in-service training for teachers it is the driving force behind much change that has occurred in the area of teaching and learning. In-service training is so vital that teachers need to keep up to date on current concepts, thinking and research in their field and also promote professional growth among themselves in order to promote excellence among themselves, their environment and their students.
Training is like sharpening an existing skill in order to reflect the trends in technology and other social –cultural environmental changes of an organization. Productivity is the goal of today’s competitive business world and training can be a spring board to enhance productivity. The aim is to enable them contribute their full measure to the welfare, health and development of the organization (Onah 1993). The main objective of training and development in service organization is to increase efficiency of employees with the resulting increase in corporate productivity. This accounts for why a large number of fund and time is expected by organization at one period or the order in the improvement of the skills of their employees at various levels.
The role of the teacher in the overall development of any child cannot be underestimated, as it is the teacher that as establish a climate of emotional support, helpfulness and serves as facilitator of learning to the child. Teacher is the important factor in the learning achievement of school children. In view of the foregoing, Ajao (2001) posited that the quality of education depends on teachers as reflected on the overall development of pupils. Evidence abound that the teacher is a very most important single factor in determining what a school will be like for children. Teachers, like other professionals, may have to continue their education after they qualify, a process known as continuing professional development. Therefore, the research tends to examine the impact of in-service training on teachers performance in secondary in Nigeria with reference to selected secondary schools in Keffi of Nasarawa State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There have been several insinuations concerning the school system as stakeholders have often complained of poor teacher productivity. Teacher productivity, in the area under study, appears to be poor in terms of the way and manner in which they perform their duties. For quite some time, teachers welfare has been on a low ebb in Nasarawa State due to irregular salaries, absence of employment, training and the productivity of teachers is either threatened or on the decline. There have been constant cases of absenteeism, persistent lateness to school, poor lesson note preparation, irregular and unauthorized movement of teachers from their duty post and indiscipline constitute a big problem to the attainment of educational goals in secondary schools. Despite the fact that the ministry, the government authorities and school managers in government aided secondary schools in Nigeria are required to offer training for their staff at different levels, this has not been given due attention in some schools. This has led to lack of morale among the teachers, inability to teach new subjects they never qualified for like entrepreneurship, lack of quality assurance procedures and strategies in the orientation to and implementation of new syllabus, teachers funding them for training in fields not related to teaching profession and increased absenteeism from duty. However, if these irregularities are not well addressed, it is likely that this may result to production of half-baked school leavers as witnessed in the final results of the Senior School Certificate Examinations released over time now. The study thus investigated how the independent variable (In-service training) will relate with the dependent variable (teacher productivity) in selected secondary schools in Keffi of Nasarawa State.
1.3 Purpose of the study
The main purpose of this study is to investigate in-service training and teacher’s productivity in secondary schools. The specific objectives are:
- To examine the relationship between in-service training programme and teachers pedagogical skills in secondary schools.
- To ascertain the relationship in service training of teachers and academic performance of students in secondary schools.
1.4 Research questions
The following research question has been formulated to guide the study:
- Does in service training programme improve teacher’s pedagogical skills?
- Does in service training of teacher lead to improved academic performance of students in secondary schools?
1.5 Research hypotheses
The following hypotheses have been formulated and will be tested at 0.05 level of significance appropriate statistical tool analysis.
H0: There is no significant relationship between in-service training programme and teacher improved pedagogical skills in secondary schools.
H0: There are no significant relationships between in service training of teachers and high academic performance of students in secondary schools.
1.6 Significance of study
The research study shall be significant in a number of ways.
In the first place, it is understood that investigation into this broad area of study will exposed so many things hitherto dominant facts and which previous researchers in this field has failed to investigated. This analysis will therefore help in the small way to a better understanding of in service training programme especially as it’s relate to teachers productivity in secondary schools in Nasarawa State
Secondly, the utilization of the basic tenets of this research study in general and the body of facts in particular will to a very far extent enhance a government efforts towards ensuring a systematic re-training programmes for teachers currently in secondary schools across the country in general and Federal Government College Keffi in particular.
It will also add inputs to government efforts in ensuring sound more effective and efficient teachers that will improve the falling standard of education in the society as well as contribute to high academic performance of students in secondary schools which variably will be leaders in different capacities of human endeavors.
Furthermore, the study will assist policy makers and educational planners to fashioning a more variable, teaching and learning environment and an educational system that will enable the country to free the currently challenge of globalization with its emphasis on professionalism and increase productivity.
Finally, the study will be beneficial to students and researchers a like as it will contribute to the existing literature in order to add to the body of knowledge in this field, and to the researchers, it will provide inputs into their studies and hence increase their knowledge.
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the study
For the purpose of the study the researcher has limited the study to secondary schools in Keffi metropolis of Nasarawa State. Generally, every research study like all other investigation both public and private is often bedecked with numerous constraints.
This particularly work is not an exemption, thus many administrative bottle necks posed severe threat to the continuity of the study.
The geographical distance between the various schools in the area of the research constituted serious transportation problem.
The study has been inheritably hindered by the lean purse and economic depression that bite seriously on the researchers.
In this study the following assumptions were made:-
- Poor standard of education in the country is a tone indication of teacher’s low productivity.
- The poor scores of the promotion examination for the previous academic years are true indicator of teacher low productivity.
- An in service programme for teachers will lead to more knowledge and skill acquisition and an improve productivity.
- The data collected from each of the subject through the use of research instrument (records an questionnaire) were accurate and variable.
1.9 Operational Definition of terms
In-service Training: According to the United State of America Department of Education (1985) in service training is a system of systematized activities promoted and directed by the school system that contribute to the professional or occupational growth and competence of staff members during the time of their service to the school system.
Productivity: Productivity is the ratio of output to inputs in production; it is a measure of the efficiency of production to measure of output. A measure of the efficiency of a person in converting input into useful outputs.
In more common meaning, it refers to producing good result.
School Teacher: One whose profession or occupation is teaching, school teacher is a person who provides education for pupils (children) and students (adults). The role of teacher is often formal and ongoing, carried out at a school or other place of formal education.
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