The purpose of this research work is to assess student’s involvement on examination malpractice, causes and its effects in Lagos state secondary schools, using some selected Secondary Schools in Lagos state metropolis as a case study. A total of 200 students were used on this study. The instrument used for collection of data from them as the questionnaire and records of students who have been punished either by expulsion or warning their class. The generated data were analyzed using simple percentages. The findings of the study are as following, recommendations are made. More teachers should be employed so that during examination, the different rooms and hall will have more invigilators. The teachers should teach the students; about reading skills to enable them develop good reading habits. The management should endeavour to build more large halls. Course system should be introduced in secondary school. The educational system should be restructured to provide for a smooth transition. Less emphasis should as from now be accorded paper qualifications owners.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
There is evidence in the literatures that examination are some of the controversial issues in education today because of their nature, they attract many critics some of these critics think that less emphasis should be placed or laid on examination while others advocated understanding of subject rather than recourse to examination.
Also examinations are known to play very important role in our education system. According to Ojerinde in Oyechere (1996), examination is a formal test of somebody knowledge, skills or ability in a particular subject especially by means of oral or written questions or practical exercise. According to Liman, (1996) examination is a means of testing student’s knowledge and competence. To Ahmed (1996) examination is any act of wrongdoing or neglect that contravenes the rules and regulations of acceptable practice before, during and after an examination by any after an examination by any reason. In all countries of the world examination, which are in reality and frequently in name also competitions designed to eliminate the majority of candidate and allocate the remainder to certain known vacancies.
The most important quality of examination is used to determine pass or fail of students or group students in a school. This is necessary because I the opinion of Ahmed history seem to support the views that setting students against one another in trial and competition has always been repeatable means of inviting them zeal. Students who knows that he might fail an examination which will in turn determines his progress or promotion will strive to pass. Examination is also used academically for assigning grades to student’s secondary schools, we find students being places in division one, two and three or distinction credit and respectively determined through an examination. In the universities also, students are stratified into first, second, (Upper and lower) or third class degree having gone through an examination. These grades are measure of success and prestige students with a division one pass in school certificate examination will be retained by those around him as academically precious, he is also likely to have a place in institutions of higher learning or in job situation with the society easier than students with a division three pass. All these candidates have combined to influence a student’s attitude to an examination, which always culminates in an urge for success in any particular examination on whether or not he had prepared for it.
Examinations are also used for other functions. According to Senekan (1996), examination is irregularities, which are premeditated and perpetuated by the candidates or their agents with the intension of gaining undue advantage in the examination. They are designed as a basis for licensing. An example according to Senekan is the drilling test no one so far wishes to part a limit to the number of drives on the road or to set motorist completing against to knock out all bet a small pre-determined quantities of top-grade performance. The authorities have every desire to ensure that those who handled cab are capable of doing so with at least a minimum of efficiency. All licensing examination is a means of screening undesirable, so as to make life safer for many of our roads. Results are governed not by an absolute standard and performance but by the level of competence of the competitions and in the last sort. Civil Servant by the number of posts to be filled in Lagos State school system, the students have to fail series of the subjects taught in educational circles and hence the need of this work.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The issue of examination malpractices has become a major problem that many researchers has carries out studies on its causes and effect on students in different part of the world though none of the researches was conducted in Kano State. In the bid to curb this ugly menace of examination malpractice, Federal government of Nigeria enacted Act. 33 of 1999 constitution. This act spelt out the various forms of examination malpractice and the penalties that are attached, which range from a fine of N100, 000 to imprisonment of 3 to 4 years. In the same vein, the state and local governments and non-governmental organizations have mounted series of workshops, seminars, campaigns and talks on the pernicious effects of examination malpractice on the students, educational sector and on the image of the nation at international level. In the same line, several academics have written and attended scholarly conferences to proffer solutions to the problem of examination malpractice; and all these efforts have yielded a little improvement on the challenge to have clean and fair examinations in the country. To further lend a helping hand to surmount this problem is the assessment of its causes and effect as a way of identifying the solution; hence this study on students assessment on examination malpractice.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to find out the causes of examination malpractice in secondary schools especially, secondary schools in Lagos State, various methods employed by students as well as the roles by teachers, parents, secondary school authorities and the society at large.
The following are the sub objectives of this study:
- To examine the effects of examination malpractice among students of secondary schools in Lagos state.
- To identify the solutions to the issues of examination malpractice among students of secondary schools in Lagos state.
- To assess the level of examination malpractice among secondary school students in Lagos state.
- To proffer possible solutions to the above discovered problems and challenges associated with examination malpractice.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- What are the causes of examination malpractice among the SS3 students of secondary schools in Lagos state?
- What are the effects of examination malpractice among the SS3 students of secondary schools in Lagos state?
- What are the solutions to the issues of examination malpractice among the SS3 students of secondary schools in Lagos state?
- What are the consequences of examination malpractice?
- Why do student engage in examination malpractice?
- What methods do the students use in carrying out the examination malpractice?
- What are the contributions of teachers towards encouraging examination malpractice in secondary schools?
- Does unconducive learning environment propel students into examination malpractice?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is of great importance to note that at the completion of this research work, various secondary schools, communities, towns, state and Nigeria in general will find the result of this research work to be beneficial to a great extent, this research work would play an essential role in the standard of education and in the task of economic growth and development. The result from this research work will also provide an ample opportunity for parents to be aware of what role they must play in order to prevent their children from being engaged in examination malpractice. The outcome of this study will be useful to education administrators, teachers and students on the causes, effect and solution to the menace of examination malpractices among secondary school students in Nigeria. Findings from this study will be useful for future researches has it will constitute part of the empirical literature making it a guide for future researchers.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study covers student’s assessment on examination malpractice, particularly focused on secondary schools in Lagos states metropolis. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
Time: the time at the disposal of the researcher which was allocated for the study was a major limitation as the researcher had to combine other academic activities with the study.
Finance: The finance at the disposal of the researcher in the course of the study could not permit wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.
Availability of research material: The research materials available to the researcher at the time of this study were insufficient, thereby limiting the study.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Exam: a formal test of a person’s knowledge or proficiency in a particular subject or skill
Malpractices: Improper, illegal, or negligent professional activity
Academic performance: Academic achievement or (academic) performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals. Cumulative GPA and completion of educational degrees such as High School and Bachelor’s degrees represent academic achievement.
Assessment: educationally, assessment is the process of documenting knowledge, skills, attitudes, and beliefs.
Secondary school: A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools provide both lower secondary education and (upper) secondary education (levels 2 and 3 of the ISCED scale), but these are often provided in separate schools. When lower secondary education is provided in the same school as primary education or in a separate school, usually called a middle school, it is usually not called secondary education (except by some education experts) and is considered to be the second and final phase of basic education.