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                                  CHAPTER ONE

                                INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Teaching is a very complex activity that is affected by the subject matter, the time available, the teacher’s factor, the disposition of the learners and resources. A distinction can be made between the pedagogical perspectives of teaching which includes the selection and organization of teaching materials, method of organization of teaching materials, method of instruction and assessment, as well as the interpersonal relationship between teachers and the pupils. There are essential interpersonal relationship between teachers and the pupils. Teachers prefer a disciplined environment for learning, some creates a pleasant classroom atmosphere where pupils feel safe to take risks and be creative. (Roselland Aelterman 2006). Success in any worthwhile endeavor may be contingent upon certain critical valuables or factors. This can also be said of the pupil’s performance in school. Good achievement in schooling would be effective (attitude), and psychomotor domains

Adodo, (2005) Argued that one key overriding factor for the success of overall performance in their academic pursuit is the teacher. In the same vein, Ibrahim (2000), believed that teacher’s qualification level and exposure can go a long way to bringing g discernible difference in the quality of pupils produced. Ademulegun (2011) argued that pupil’s taught by more qualified and experienced teachers in terms of knowledge of the subject matter, performs better than those taught by less qualified but experienced teachers. The educational analysis undertaken in Nigeria by the Federal Government via the instrumentality of National Economic Empowerment and Development strategy (NEEDS, 2005), indicates that more than forty-nine percent (49%) of the teachers in Nigeria are unqualified. This spotlighted the quality of workers constituting the teaching profession in various school subjects in Nigeria.

The teachers responsible for teaching social studies as a subject in the various schools would probably be among the said over forty percent unqualified teachers. As important as knowledge of social studies in providing them with the necessary skills for social, cultural, and economic integration in the society, it appears student’s achievement in this subject at the primary school level in dwindling than in the other related subjects. The teachers’ instrument(TI), teachers’ attitude(TA), teachers’ qualification (TQ), teachers’ workload (TW), in terms of numbers of pupils handled by teachers and the experience possessed by teachers(TE), teaching the subject as a subject coupled with the pupil’s attitude(PA) towards the subject may be responsible in part of the downward trend in achievement observed in the results of the pupils in the subject (Ogun boyede,2011). Attitude as a factor could be viewed as a totality of an individual’s inclination towards object, institution or idea.

The learner from the teacher’s disposition to form attitude towards learning which could positively or negatively affect his\her performance. Teacher’s effectiveness may be prime determinant of performance in the subject. Teachers need to be professionally qualified to enable them work effectively with pupils in stimulating and directing their growth in the desired directing their growth in the desired directions. Studies have also shown that teacher’s experience exerts a great influence on the academic achievement of pupils.

Ademulegun (2011), argued that a good foundation is necessary to attract more pupils while Oke (2003) stressed that performance in separate subject may be due to the foundation laid on social studies learnt at elementary level. Ilugbusi, Falola and Daramola (2007) showed that teaching experience in external examination. Researchers have carried out studies on teachers’ demographic variables as; age, experience, gender, attitude and pupil’s academic performance.

1.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

This study used a number of theories, namely Bandura’s self-efficacy theory, the Social Cultural theory and the Cognitive consistency approach. Self-efficacy pertains to a sense of control over one’s environment and behavior, thus it is important, for the purpose of this study, to understand how teacher’s sense of control over the environment and behavior relates to their commitment to their calling. Teachers with a strong locus-of-control are more likely to maintain a higher sense of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1977). This means they are more likely to put forth more effort in order to change behavior, commit to challenges, and persistence despite obstacles that may undermine motivation.

Vygotsky (1993) in his socio-cultural theory proposed that changing social attitudes should be one of the first goals of special educators (Gindis, 2003). This theory will be relevant in this study because the right attitudes of teachers towards inclusive education are vital for the goals of special education to be realized.

Feldrnan (1985) cognitive consistency approach was relevant in this study in understanding the relationship between the teachers’ attitude and inclusion in schools and also the commitment of teachers towards inclusion. According to the theory, increased consonance in attitude will lead to increased teacher commitment towards inclusion in schools.

1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The persistent problem of poor performance of pupils in social studies remains very worrisome to stakeholders in the state and Nigeria generally. Scholars has attributed the problem to poor handling of the subjects by inexperienced teachers who are no well-versed in the subject as well as in the classroom dynamic. It has been suggested that, the demand of the syllabus is so high that only experienced teachers who can teach the subject effectively by employing various strategies and tactics to carry the learners along, should be made to handle it at this level of education for better result. From the above it is observed that, previous studies has centered attention mainly on investigating the differences or relationship between individuals (singles) teachers’ variable and pupil’s academic achievement. Apparently, further study are required to investigate the combined contribution of teachers’ qualification (TQ), Teachers’ Attitude (TA), Teachers’ workload (TW), Teachers’ experience (TE), and pupils attitude (PA) towards pupils academic achievement.

1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The overall aim of this study was to determine the extent to which teachers’ variable relates with pupils in primary schools in Calabar South Local Government Area, Cross River State. Specifically, the objective of the study is to determine the relationship between;

  1. Teacher’s gender and pupils performances in social studies in Calabar South Local Government Area, Cross River State.
  2. Teacher-pupil relationship and pupils performance in social studies in primary schools in Calabar South Local Government Area, Cross River State.
  3. Teacher’s teaching style and pupils performances in social studies in primary schools in Calabar South Local Government Area, Cross River State.
  4. Teacher’s attitude and and pupils performances in social studies in primary schools in Calabar South Local Government Area, Cross River State.

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions was stated by the researcher to guide the study;

  1. What is the relationship between teacher’s gender and pupils academic performance in social studies in primary schools in Calabar South Local Government Area.
  2. To what extent does teacher-pupil relationship relates with pupils performance in primary schools in Calabar South Local Government Area.
  3. How does teacher’s teaching style affect the performance of pupils in primary schools in Calabar South Local Government Area.

1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

H0: there is no significant correlation between teacher’s gender and pupil’s academic performance in social studies.

H1: there is a significant correlation between teacher’s gender and pupil’s academic performance in social studies.

H0: there is no significant correlation between teacher-pupils relationship and pupil’s academic performance in social studies.

H2: there is a significant correlation between teacher-pupils relationship and pupil’s academic performance in social studies.

H0: there is no significant correlation between teacher’s teaching style and pupil’s academic performance in social studies.

H3: there is a significant correlation between teacher’s teaching style and pupil’s academic performance in social studies.

1.7 ASSUMPTION OF THE STUDY

The following are the interactive component of the study.

  1. The learning nature of the learning environment in Social Studies lessons contributes to the kind of attitude held by the pupils towards Social Studies. Hence, changes to the learning environment can improve attitude.
  2. Information from pupils with positive attitudes to Social Studies can assist in the improvement of the provision of Social Studies to all pupils.
  3. Information from pupils with negative attitudes to Social Studies can assist in the identification of some aspects requiring change in the provision of Social Studies to all pupils.

1.8 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The teacher’s related variable has been identified as factors that are linked to pupils’ attitude in all subjects especially at primary school level (Darling Hammond 2000, wenglinky 2002). This study adds to the literature of researches on teachers’ variable and pupils’ attitude to learning Social Studies.

First, this study is timely in the light of recent concern about teachers’ quality and its influence on pupils’ attitude and academic performance in Nigerians schools. Many of these concerns draw attention to such issues as the professional training teachers receive and the qualification of teachers who teach a specified subject (Social Studies in particular), since teachers certification, pedagogical content knowledge have been identified as important element of teachers effectiveness and pupils achievement. Thus, this research finding will be relevant to the ministry of Education as they reveal the underlying factors towards poor performance in Social Studies.

Secondly, the result of identify their strengths and weaknesses and a desire to improve upon their weaknesses.

Finally, this study will help policy makers and researchers in the sense that it will expose teachers’ characteristics that influence pupils attitude to learning Social Studies and serve to encourage policymakers to arrest the problem through seminars and workshops, while offering researchers opportunity to find lasting solution to the problem through further research.

1.9 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The study is to carry out an assessment on teacher’s variable and the performances of pupils in social studies in some selected primary schools in Calabar South Local Government Area, Cross River State.

The researcher encountered some constraint in the course of the study which include:

Time factor: The time allocated to the researcher during the period of the study was limited coupled with lectures and exams.

Financial constraint: the finance at the disposal of the researcher during the course of the study wasn’t sufficient enough to run the expenses of the research work.

Availability of research materials: lack of proper and accurate data kept by the management of the visited primary schools during the period of this study.

1.10 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

Teacher: A teacher is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone.

Variable: In elementary mathematics, a variable is a symbol, commonly an alphabetic character, that represents a number, called the value of the variable, which is either arbitrary, not fully specified, or unknown.

Pupils: a person who is taught by another, especially a schoolchild or student in relation to a teacher. “they are former pupils of the school”

Social studies: In the United States Education system, social studies is the integrated study of multiple fields of social science and the humanities, including history, geography, and political science.

Academic performance:  Academic achievement or (academic) performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals. Cumulative GPA and completion of educational degrees such as High School and bachelor’s degrees representacademic achievement.

Teaching strategies: Teaching Strategies. Use our student-centered teaching strategies to strengthen your students’ literacy skills, nurture critical thinking, and create a respectful classroom climate. You can implement these strategies with any academic content.

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