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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

In the teaching any science or biological course, for effective lesson delivery and clear understanding of science concepts, the approach considered for the instructions is very important. Techniques like the expository technique, discussion technique, project-based technique, mastery technique (skill and practice), demonstration and laboratory techniques among other are adopted for instruction.

Science aims and objectives cannot be reached or obtained through just use of expository or obtained through just the use of expository or lecture method of teaching as it is theoretically based. It just states concept, principles and rules without further explanation or activities to boost learners understanding and to verify these principles. It has been observed that the expository method used in teaching cell and its environment (Osmosis) in most secondary schools in Nigeria does not bring about the desired outcomes in learning.  Therefore, an appropriate approach should be adopted the desired result. The use of laboratory teaching method in the study of osmosis to junior secondary II. Student is expected to enhance student and prepare them for further studying of Osmosis at the senior secondary level which would boost their performance and academic achievement.

 

1.1     BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

          Science is a great enterprise which most nations depends on in other to advance technologically. Science is therefore receiving much attention as the world is being describe as a scientific village. In Nigeria, advancement in science and technology has taken a very slow pace unlike other countries. This is due to a lot of facilities which range from economy, poor educational system, poor method of teaching, poor quality of school variables, poor scientific culture, lack of scientific facilities, Teacher’s attitude to work among others.

The best way of complimenting science is by starting from the Junior secondary level where science is taught in broad terms using the Subject Basic Science. The Objectives of basic science in Junior Secondary Schools are;

  1. To develop interest in science and technology
  2. Acquire basic knowledge and skills in science and technology
  3. Apply scientific and technological knowledge and skills to meet contemporary societal needs
  4. Take advantage of the numerous career opportunities provided by science and technology.
  5. Become prepared for further studies in science and technology

Basic science introduces the studies in science and technology science. Basic Science introduces the studies in science and technology science. Basic science as an interdisciplinary deals with all approaches to the teaching and learning of science. Basic science is a science subject taught to the students at middle basic (JSS1-JSS3) formally known as Junior Secondary (JS). It is aimed at introducing African child like any other child in the globe right from the beginning to start to develop basic scientific skills, and attitudes such as curiosity, manipulative ability, spontaneous flexibility, experimentation, mechanical comprehension among others. And, if taught properly it will develop the students interest in science. The method used in teaching basic in junior secondary schools plays a vital role in the development of science. Teaching methods are means to making  students study effectively. Teaching methods concern the tactics teachers use to meet teaching tools and materials.

Ameh and Danntani (2008), observe that teaching methodology is vital in any teaching learning situation and the method adopted by the teacher can promote or hinder learning. Science is a conceptual fact govern by laws, principles and theories and can be verifiable in the laboratory.

Laboratory method of teaching is the best method available for every teacher teaching science in Junior Secondary Schools. It promotes information acquisition through observation, experimentation, solution to problems guide by reflective thinking and acquisition of manipulative skills. It provides students opportunity to participate or conduct original research in using laboratory method, it involves the preparation stage, the pre-laboratory preparation, the actual work period and the combinative activities. The processes of investigation don’t always run smoothly, and students need guidance to make sense of their results, therefore those stage are necessary. This method of teaching considers both the content and the inquiry skills intended for students to master.

It is essential to coordinate the teaching of concepts with their laboratory applications but they are constraints like funds for learning materials and tools, time factors for lesson and equipment of laboratory facilities.

According to Robert James and Frank Crawley (2000). Science teachers also require laboratory teaching skills for effective teaching-learning process and to help curb the problems of laboratory instruction.

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

          Teaching Osmosis in Junior Secondary Schools in Uyo local government area over the years has been theoretically based and thereby not efficient enough to achieve the specific objective. Students understanding of osmosis is prerequisite for their understanding of certain biological concept.

According to Abdelkum Hasni (2005) over the last 20 years, several studies have showed that students have inadequate conceptions about Diffusion and Osmosis or that appropriation for this two phenomena remains incomplete and partial.

According to cook, carter and Wiebe (2008). P. 224  shows that students struggle to understand a number of concept, associated with osmosis such as the relationship between dynamic equilibrium, the role of osmosis in plant cell and the relationship between quantity of solvent and solute. The problem of teaching osmosis in Junior Secondary School is primarily dependent on the teaching strategy used by the teacher. This has affected the performance of student and also limited their knowledge of various concept in Basic Science/Biology. This is buttressed by persistent poor performance of basic Science students in Junior School certificate Examination with past years. Following the report from the junior West African Examination council of 2013 – 2015. Therefore, in other to find solution to the above problems, laboratory method to teach the concept of osmosis in secondary schools has become a necessity to be in use.

 

 

1.3     PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

          The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of laboratory method in teaching osmosis in junior secondary school II in Uyo local government area. The adoption of laboratory method for teaching osmosis hopefully would bring out desired learning outcomes in students and enhance teachers competence and performance specifically the study examines;

  1. The use of laboratory method in teaching osmosis
  2. The use of conventional method in teaching osmosis in junior secondary school in Uyo local government area
  3. Effect of gender on students’ academic performance taught using laboratory method.

 

1.4   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The findings of this study will may be of immense benefits

  1. To the government or the policy makers in formulating effective planning and implementation of policies that will make science a more practical oriented course.
  2. It may be of benefit to science teachers and prospective teachers for choosing suitable teaching strategy.
  3. It may be of benefit to science teachers when choosing topics and resource materials for lessons and for instruction delivery.
  4. It may serve as a reference material for further research on related areas of this study.

 

1.5     RESEACH HYPOTHESES   

The following research hypotheses were formulated for the study.

  1. There is no significant difference between the academic performance of student taught osmosis using laboratory method and those taught osmosis using conventional method.
  2. There is no significant difference between academic performance of male and female students taught osmosis using laboratory teaching method.

 

1.6    RESEACH QUESTIONS

To carry out this research, the following questions were raised to guide the study.

  1. What is the difference in the mean achievement scores of students taught using laboratory method and those taught using lecture method.
  2. What is the difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught basic science using laboratory method.

 

1.7      LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

There were a lot of impediments encountered during the course of this research. The major impediment was finance and time constraint, availability to various relevant materials and area related to the study. The researcher used her slim resources to finance the project involving purchase of books, photocopying papers and collecting data for the study.

 

1.8     DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This study is limited in scope to the use of laboratory method in teaching the concept osmosis to junior secondary 2  government area of Akwa Ibom state. The study investigated whether teaching method relates to teaching and student academic performance of junior secondary 2 students on the concept osmosis. It also studied/investigated the effect of laboratory method on students’ academic performance. To this end, an in depth study could not be conducted as scope is limited to secondary schools in Uyo local government area of Akwa Ibom state.

 

1.9     DEFINITION OF TERMS

The following terms are defined based on the context used in this research work.

EDUCATION: This is the process of facilitating learning, or acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.

Conventional teaching method (lecture method) : This is also called the traditional teaching method. This involves the students and the teacher, where the teacher is actively involved than the learners. Lecture method is usually an exposition and autocratic in form and style. It might seem  that lecture method is the easiest teaching strategy as it describes and defines, since the lecturer’s role is to transmit information.

According to Obanya (1979) a lecture method is usually a combination of;

A       Citing what well known authors have written on the  topic of the lecture.

B        Expressing the lecturer’s own opinion demonstrating how something     work, starting the arguments in         favour of and against a particular proposition. This method of teaching is used at all level of education.                   At the primary and secondary school levels, this method may not be        very suitable.

OSMOSIS: This is defined as the movement of water from a less concentrated solution to a more concentrated solution through a partially permeable membrane.

LABORATORY METHOD OF TEACHING: This is defined as a planned learning activity dealing with original or raw data in the solution of problem. It is a process that uses apparatus and materials to discover or verify facts.

 

TEACHING METHOD: This is the process of selecting, directing, controlling and evaluating the experience of the child to achieve desirable outcomes.

Eddie (2004) quotes Aina et al (1989) to say that teaching method is a way of doing something. He added that it is an approach or stand, which a teacher adopts to explain a subject matter to a group of students or a student.

LABORATORY EQUIPMENT : These are tools and materials used by scientists who work in a laboratory for practical experiments.

SCIENCE : This is the knowledge about or study of the natural world based on facts learned through experiments and observation.

 

 

 

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