THE CHALLENGES OF WASTE MANAGEMENT WITHIN THE OIL AND GAS PRODUCING COMMUNITIES IN THE NIGER-DELTA
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TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research question
1.5 Research hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Scope and limitation of the study
1.8 Definition of terms
1.9 organization of the study
2.2 conceptual review
2.3 empirical review
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
The causes of environmental degradation and biodiversity depletion arising from the activities of the oil industry in the region are evaluated. The authors argue that, specific negative impact on the region arising from the activities of the industries include: environmental pollution, biodiversity depletion, social destabilization, underdevelopment of host communities, global warming. Waste generation, both domestic and industrial, continues to increase world-wide in tandem with growth in consumption. For the oil and gas industry, waste management is an integral component of oil & gas exploration & production activities. Oil and Gas operations involve a range of activities, which include exploration, drilling, Construction, production, provision of messing facilities, transportation, telecommunication, among others, which generate different categories of wastes streams that must be managed.
- Background of the study
Petroleum exploration and production in the Nigeria’s Niger Delta region and export of oil and gas resources by the petroleum sector has substantially improved the nation’s economy over the past five decades. However, activities associated with petroleum exploration, development and production operations have local detrimental and significant impacts on the atmosphere, soils and sediments, surface and groundwater, marine environment, biologically diversity and sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems in the Niger Delta. Discharges of petroleum hydrocarbon and petroleum–derived waste streams have caused environmental pollution, adverse human health effects, and detrimental impact on regional economy, socio–economic problems and degradation of host communities in the 9 oil–producing states in the Niger Delta region. Although there are other potential anthropogenic sources of pollution, some of the major environmental consequences such as air pollution, global climate change and oil spills in the Niger Delta may be regional or global in scale. Kamalu, and Wokocha (2011). Apart from other anthropogenic emission sources, atmospheric pollution in the region is associated with emissions from flaring and venting of petroleum associated natural gas by petroleum industries Ite, and Ibok (2013). This is largely the outfall of poor waste water management and unsustainable oil and gas operation in the Niger delta. All the publications, commentaries and documentaries locally and globally appear not to be making significant impacts on the waste management system and environmental quality of Niger delta. Oil and gas are one of the most important resources in the world and it plays a role in the global economy. However, the activities of oil and gas from most of companies in the world have many negative impacts on the environment. One of the reasons is due to the waste production from the oil and gas industry. According to Environmental Quality Act 1974, waste can be defined as any matter prescribed to be waste and any matter, whether liquid, solid, gaseous or radioactive, which is discharged, emitted, or deposited in the environment in such volume, composition or manner as to cause an alteration of the environment. The exploration and extraction of oil and gas processes produce the waste materials such as used drilling fluids and drilling cuttings like complex mixtures of clays and chemicals. Usually the waste is discharged directly from the platforms into the surrounding marine water. Based on the standard procedure, the waste has to clean first before discharge the waste into the marine water by various physical means and the company has to follow the limits on levels of contaminants based on the regulations and legislations. If the disposal of these wastes is not regulated, the resulting environmental pollution may lead to radiation exposure, whether for people directly involved in oil and gas operations, the general public, animals and plants. There are several potential adverse impacts to the marine water due to disposal of wastes. For example is it can pollute of the marine environment, surface soil and water degradation and groundwater contamination? In general, this study provides an overview on the oil exploration and production waste discharges according to legislative and waste management practices perspective in Nigeria and the study of the effect of the waste produced from the oil and gas industry to the environment. The scopes of the study are covered by several sections as follows: the oil exploration and production waste discharges, waste management in oil and gas waste products, the regulations and legislations act related to oil and gas in Nigeria and the possible environment impact due to disposal of wastes to marine water. Melton, et al. (2000) the question of waste management method in the oil and gas sector remains a big headache for the oil and gas industry. It has brought nations, communities and oil and gas exploration companies on collision. The industry itself spans the drilling, completion, production, and work-over, pipelining and marketing trades. Each phase of the industry has its own unique waste management concerns. To understand the regulatory structure, one must comprehend the types of wastes generated by the industry. Waste oils are hazardous waste as they display some hazardous properties. Waste oils that are found in rivers, lakes and streams threaten aquatic life. Indeed, a litre of waste oil can contaminate a million litres of water. Severe soil contamination can result from waste oils being left on the ground. The production of oil and gas generate waste gases that need to be controlled in a manner that protects the environment. But a major problem with oil and gas exploration activities is the inability of governments and their regulatory agencies to control and prevent environmental pollution and other associated problems. Oil spillage, gas flaring and venting have caused loss of lives, and have adversely affected human health and the environment. These adverse effects have led to the clamor for strict environmental regulation of oil and gas operations, in order to control, reduce or prevent pollutions arising from exploration and exploitation activities. The quest for greater income generation made Nigeria to redirect her productive base to oil and gas in abandonment of agriculture. This was as a result of the oil boom in the 1970s; the Nigerian government shifted emphasis from the farmlands to the oil fields with excessive exploration and exploitation of the Niger Delta environment and made Nigeria a mono-economy. It further created excessive wealth for the national economy while the oil producing communities were left with socio-economic and ecological crisis (Akpomuvie, 2011). The negative impact of exploration activities of oil and gas companies have greatly dwindled general livelihoods of the people especially the people of Niger Delta. Over 90% of the nation‟s export earnings and about 70%of revenue accruing to the federation account is generated from the Niger Delta amidst ecological devastation and underdevelopment of the region (Omene, (2001).World Bank (1995) report observed that cases of water borne diseases and poor transportation in the Niger Delta are the worst in the country. Predominantly, the cause of environmental degradation in the Niger Delta is oil spillage and gas flaring arising from oil exploration and exploitation. This concern, however does not reduce the importance of other environmental issues such as bush burning, erosion of various configuration, indiscriminate waste disposal etc. The problems of development in the Niger Delta region are numerous and complex. Accidents do occur periodically in the course of various processes and activities in the production, refining and distribution of petroleum products resulting from accidental discharges attributed to equipment failure, malfunctioning, deterioration occasioned by corrosion, ageing of pipelines, deliberate or wilful acts of vandalization (about 900 cases reported in year 2000), neglect in carrying out proper maintenance and or even human error.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The United Nations’ Human Development Report of the Niger Delta among several alarming declarations on the state of the region’s environment asserts that “there is a strong feeling in the region that the degree and rate of degradation are pushing the delta towards ecological disaster” (UNDP, 2006). This feeling is buttressed by results of research. An impact assessment of the 1983 Oshika oil spill by Powell and White (1985) confirmed the death of floating and submerged aquatic vegetations especially water lettuce, crabs, fish and birds. Atuma and Egborge (1996), NDES (1997), Egborge, (2000) Orubu et al., (2002), and Otukunefor and Biukwu (2005) have all shown that the pollution levels of aquatic ecosystems observed in the region are a result of unregulated effluent discharges and unsustainable methods of petroleum extraction. It is against this backdrop that the researcher intends to investigate the challenges of waste management within the oil and gas producing communities in the Niger-Delta
- OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The study has one objective which is broken down into general and specific objective; the general objective is to examine the challenges of waste management within the oil and gas producing communities in the Niger-Delta. The specific objectives are;
- To examine the effect of poor waste management practice of oil and gas industries on the health of the host communities
- To ascertain if there is any significant relationship between waste management practice and environmental degradation in the Niger-Delta region
- To examine the role of oil and gas industry in effective waste management in the study area
- To ascertain the role of government in ensuring effective waste management in the Niger-Delta region
- To proffer suggested solution to the identified problem
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study
- Does poor waste management practice of oil and gas industries have any effect on the health of the host communities?
- Is there any significant relationship between waste management practice and environmental degradation in the Niger-Delta region?
- Does oil and gas industry play any role in ensuring effective waste management in the study area?
- Does government play any role in ensuring effective waste management in the Niger-Delta region?
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study;
H0: government does not play any significant role in ensuring effective waste management in the Niger-Delta region
H1: government does play a significant role in ensuring effective waste management in the Niger-Delta region
H0: there is no significant relationship between waste management practice and environmental degradation in the Niger-Delta region
H2: there is a significant relationship between waste management practice and environmental degradation in the Niger-Delta region
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of importance to the federal ministry of environment as the study will remind them on the need to ensure effective waste management technique and environmental protection measures, the study will also be of great importance to researchers who intend to embark on a study in a similar topic as the study will serve as a reference point to further research, the study will also be of importance to academia’s, students and the general public as the study will contribute to the pool of existing literature on the subject matter and also contribute to knowledge.
- SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the challenges of waste management within the oil and gas producing communities in the Niger-Delta region in Nigeria, but in the cause of the study, there are some factors that militate against the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
- c) FINANCE: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Waste are unwanted or unusable materials. Waste is any substance which is discarded after primary use, or is worthless, defective and of no use.
Waste management are the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal. This includes the collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste, together with monitoring and regulation of the waste management process
The petroleum industry, also known as the oil industry or the oil patch, includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting
The Niger Delta is the delta of the Niger River sitting directly on the Gulf of Guinea on the Atlantic Ocean in Nigeria.
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.