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| Format: Ms Word | 1-5 Chapters | Table of Content|


Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE

Amount: ₦4,000.00


This study sought to examine the effect Of Covid-19 on secondary students in Lagos State. A survey research design was used for the study. The sample comprised of secondary school students (both male and female) from selected secondary schools in Mushin local government education district. The instrument used for data collection was the students’ structured questionnaire. The data collected for the study were analyzed using simple percentage tables and Chi-square analytical tools. The major findings showed that the lockdown of schools as a results of the coronavirus epidemic in Nigeria have a negative effect on student academic performance. The study also discovered that the period of stay at home increases the number of illiterates in the society. The study recommends that government should at all time be prepared in other to contain any epidemic that may occur in the future, the study among others recommends for parents to hire private teachers for their children when they are not in school, this will boost their academic performance in classroom.

                                       TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page

Approval page




Table of content



1.1        Background of the study

1.2        Statement of Problem

1.3        Objectives of the Study

1.4      Research Questions

1.5        Research Hypothesis

1.6       Significance of the Study

1.7       Scope/Limitations of the Study

1.8   Operational Definition of Terms



2.0 Introduction

2.1 Conceptual review

2.1.1 Concept of corona virus

2.1.2 Concept of Academic Performance

2.1.3 Concept of Secondary Schools

2.14 The Negative Effects of Covid-19 Pandemic on Student Performance

2.1.5 Effect of Covid 19 Pandemic on External Examinations in Nigeria

2.1.6 Control and Prevention Strategies for Covid-19

2.2 Theoretical Framework

2.3 Empirical Literature Review



3.1 Introduction

3.2   Research Design

3.3 Study Area

3.4   Population of the study

3.5 Sample and Sampling Technique

3.6 Sources of Data

3.7    Method of Data Collection

3.8   Method of Data Analysis


4.1 Introduction

4.2   Data Analysis and Findings


5.1 Summary

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendations


Appendix I

                                               CHAPTER ONE


1.1 Background to the Study

The COVID-19 pandemic affected all sphere of life including the shutdown of all institutions which invariably has negative implication on the academic morale of students’ in the world and in a developing country like Nigeria. Education is among the sectors with devastating impact of COVID-19 pandemic. The World Health Organization (WHO), define coronaviruses as a family of viruses that cause illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). These viruses were originally transmitted from animals to people. SARS, for instance, was transmitted from civet cats to humans while MERS moved to humans from a type of camel. Several known coronaviruses are circulating in animals that have not yet infected humans. The name coronavirus comes from the Latin word corona, meaning crown or halo. Under an electron microscope, the looks like it is surrounded by a solar corona.

The novel coronavirus, identified by Chinese authorities on January 7 and since named SARS-CoV-2, is a new strain that had not been previously identified in humans. Little is known about it, although human-to-human transmission has been confirmed. Chinese health authorities are still trying to determine the origin of the virus, which they say likely came from a seafood market in Wuhan, China where wildlife was also traded illegally. On February 7, Chinese researchers said the virus could have spread from an infected animal species to humans through illegally-trafficked pangolins, which are prized in Asia for food and medicine. Scientists have pointed to either bats or snakes as possible sources of the virus. According to the WHO, signs of infection include fever, cough, shortness of breath and breathing difficulties. In more severe cases, it can lead to pneumonia, multiple organ failure and even death. Current estimates of the incubation period – the time between infection and the onset of symptoms – range from one to 14 days. Most infected people show symptoms within five to six days.

However, infected patients can also be asymptomatic, meaning they do not display any symptoms despite having the virus in their systems (Wikipedia, 2020). The number of fatalities from the new coronavirus has overwhelmingly surpassed the toll of the 2002-2003 SARS outbreak, which also originated in China. SARS killed about 9 percent of those it infected – nearly 800 people worldwide and more than 300 in China alone. MERS, which did not spread as widely, was more deadly, killing one-third of those infected. As of April 4, more than 60,000 people worldwide have died of COVID-19, the highly infectious respiratory disease caused by the coronavirus. The number of people who have tested positive for COVID-19 has exceeded 1 million, according to data compiled by Johns Hopkins University. While the new coronavirus is more widespread than SARS in terms of case numbers, the mortality rate remains considerably lower at approximately 3.4 percent, according to the WHO. Scientists around the globe are racing to develop a vaccine but have warned it is not likely one will be available for mass distribution before 2021. There have been five global health emergencies since 2005 when the declaration was formalized: swine flu in 2009, polio in 2014, Ebola in 2014, Zika in 2016 and Ebola again in 2019. As of April 13, more than 70,000 people worldwide have died of COVID-19, the highly infectious respiratory disease caused by the coronavirus. The number of people who have tested positive for COVID-19 has exceeded 1 million, according to data compiled by Johns Hopkins University. Countries around the world are scrambling to halt the spread of the coronavirus pandemic.

This outbreak of covid-19 is a global health emergency, the WHO said on January 30, raising the alarm further on March 11 when it declared the crisis a pandemic (Wikipedia, 2020). Presently, COVID-19 has spread to about 200 Countries in the World including Nigeria. Nigeria is a country located in West Africa. The official name of the country is the Federal Republic of Nigeria. The country has a population of 188,462,640 people, making it the 7th most populous country in the world. In terms of area, it is the 32nd largest country at 356,669 square miles. The country is a federal presidential republic with a president and vice president. The capital city is Abuja. On 28 January 2020, the Federal government of Nigeria assured citizens of the country of its readiness to strengthen surveillance at five international airports in the country to prevent the spread of coronavirus. The government announced the airports as Enugu, Lagos, Rivers, Kano and the FCT. The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control also announced same day that they had already set up coronavirus group and was ready to activate its incident system if any case emerged in Nigeria. On 31 January 2020, following the developments of COVID-19 pandemic in mainland China and other countries worldwide, the federal government of Nigeria set up a Coronavirus Preparedness Group to mitigate the impact of the virus if it eventually spreads to the country.

On the same day, the World Health Organization listed Nigeria among other 13 African countries identified as high-risk for the spread of the virus (Wikipedia, 2020). On 27 February, Nigeria confirmed its first case in Lagos State, an Italian citizen who works in Nigeria had returned on 25 February from Milan, Italy through the Murtala Muhammed International Airport, fell ill on 26 February and was transferred to Lagos State Biosecurity Facilities for isolation and testing. Presently, Nigeria is having 199 covid-19 cases, two death and twenty recovered. In order to contain the spread of the virus in Nigeria, the Federal Ministry of Education has directed all educational institutions in Nigeria to shut down and allow students to go home as cases of reported COVID-19 increased to 13. The Permanent Secretary in the Ministry of Education, Sonny Echono, told reporters on 19 March that the directive was part of the country’s overall strategy to contain the spread of the virus. Nigeria joins the growing list of countries in Africa which have closed schools and universities. Before the official announcement by the permanent secretary, most universities had already sent their students home (Wikipedia, 2020). Education is administered by the federal, state and local governments.

The Federal Ministry of Education is responsible for overall policy formation and ensuring quality control, but is primarily involved with tertiary education. School education is largely the responsibility of state (secondary) and local (elementary) governments. The country is multilingual, and home to more than 250 different ethnic groups. The languages of the three largest groups, the Yoruba, the Ibo, and the Hausa, are the language of instruction in the earliest years of basic instruction; they are replaced by English in Grade Nigeria’s education system encompasses three different sectors: basic education (nine years), post-basic/senior secondary education (three years), and tertiary education (four to six years, depending on the program of study).

According to Nigeria’s latest National Policy on Education (2004), basic education covers nine years of formal (compulsory) schooling consisting of six years of elementary and three years of junior secondary education. Post-basic education includes three years of senior secondary education. The direction that all educational institutions in Nigeria should be shut down and allow students to go home as a measure to contain the spread of the virus. This study is aim to find out the perception of parents on the impact of covid-19 on secondary education in Nigeria

1.2 Statement of Problem

 During the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa, the Nigerian Federal government announced the indefinite postponement of the 2020 West African Examination Council and the National Examinations Council (NECO) due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The situation was depressing. The statistics were scary and the consequences were also severe. The numbers were unprecedented and the implications were enormous. Never before have so many children and youths been out of school at the same time. The consequences are better imagined. Even before the current closure of schools, the world was already experiencing a global learning crisis, as many students, who, even while the school system was in full swing, were not learning the fundamental skills needed for life, (World Bank 2020).The closure of schools has now further compounded the situation with remarkable impacts on students, teachers, families and far-reaching economic and social consequences. In many countries like Nigeria, poor children rely on the school feeding system for their only meal for the day. But with schools now forced to close, millions of children are missing out on these meals. Many social vices are associated with youths not actively engaged in schooling. Children and youths who are not in school are more susceptible to social vices such as alcoholism, substance abuse and other forms of criminal activities. Early marriage and child labor are also some of the consequences of school closures. In an attempt to positively engage the children and also ensure that they are not left behind in their learning journey, many countries including Nigeria have adopted online teaching and learning, using radio, television and internet solutions to support access to education. In order to provide another window for learning, UNESCO through its COVID-19 Education response, floated a platform tagged Learning Never Stops, to facilitate inclusive learning opportunities for children and youths during this period of sudden disruption in the school system. Recently, the Ministry of Education in Nigeria uploaded on its website electronic learning resources and education chat rooms for the thirty-six states in the country and the Federal Capital Territory, for continuing education and individualized learning for children at home. Laudable as these initiatives appear, they cannot be compared to classroom based instructions and the benefit to the very poor children who rely on schools not only for education, but also for food, healthcare and safety.

Moreover, these efforts may not achieve the set objectives, given the limited access of poor children to television, electricity, internet and other equipment needed to take advantage of the e learning platforms.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to examine the effect of Covid-19 pandemic on secondary school student in Lagos state. The specific objectives are:

  1. To determine if corona virus pandemic has a significant effect on academic performances in Lagos state.
  2. To examine the impact of corona virus pandemic on post-primary education in Nigeria.
  3. To examine the relationship between Perceived Covid19 Pandemic and Student academic Performances.
  4. To find out if Covid-19 pandemic have impact on reduction of manpower in secondary school education in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will guide the study:

  1. Does corona virus pandemic has any significant effect on academic performances in Lagos state?
  2. Does corona virus pandemic has impact on post-primary education in Nigeria?
  3. Is there any significant relationship between Covid19 Pandemic and Student academic Performances?
  4. What are the impact of Covid-19 pandemic on the reduction of manpower in secondary school education in Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

The following statement of hypothesis will be tested in the course of the study;

H0: Corona virus pandemic does not have any significant effect on academic performances in Lagos state

H1: Corona virus pandemic have a significant effect on academic performances in Lagos state

H0: There is no significant relationship between Covid19 Pandemic and Student academic Performances

H2: There is a significant relationship between Covid19 Pandemic and Student academic Performances

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study will be immense significance to a wide spectrum of secondary schools student in Mushin local government education district

Again, this intent contributing to the existing knowledge on effects of Covid19 Pandemic on academic performance of students. It will enlighten schools lecturers and the entire parent on Covid19 Pandemic of the students, thereby helping them to guard against problem in schools.

Moreover, this project will equally enlighten parents on the problem of too much Covid19 Pandemic which their children sometimes involves themselves.

The recommendation of the researchers may also contributes to the efforts at solving the problems of Covid19 Pandemic encountered by secondary schools student in Mushin local government education district.

The work will also be of benefits to Mushin students and other users of the library. This is because, after completion of this research, a copy will be taken to the library for public consumption. Students will benefits from the findings of this research.

1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study

Since no single research can validly cover all areas of the topic, the researcher intends to center this study within the effect Of Covid-19 on the academic performance of secondary students in Nigeria The study will mainly be restricted to selected secondary schools in Mushin local government education district where the respondents comprising of teachers, counselors, and principals are drawn to enable the researcher carryout out extensive investigation on the subject.

In the course of investigation and interviews on the subject, some challenges were encountered, these includes; photocopy of relevant documents and purchase of textbooks for literature of the work.

Time constraint; the time with which to carry out the research was short and hence combing it with studies in the class was an obstacle.

Some respondents were uncooperative in answering question, this unwillingness stems from their busy work schedules, pride, fear of incitement and misconception about the motive behind the research.

Consequently, these limitations could have affected the quality of the data assembled, but notwithstanding, data have been successfully collected and objectively interpreted to suit the aim of the study.

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

 For ease of understanding, the following terms are defined in the context in which they are used in this study:

Virus: A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of an organism. Viruses can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea

Pandemic: A pandemic is a disease epidemic that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple continents, or worldwide. A widespread endemic disease with a stable number of infected people is not a pandemic. Further, flu pandemics generally exclude recurrences of seasonal flu.

Epidemic: An epidemic is the rapid spread of disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. For example, in meningococcal infections, an attack rate in excess of 15 cases per 100,000 people for two consecutive weeks is considered an epidemic

Corona virus: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious respiratory disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus that broke out 2019

Academic Performance: This refers to the students’ achievement, scores within the class and his position relative to all those subjected the same test.

Secondary School: Secondary school is the next step up from primary school. It is an organization that provides secondary education or post primary education for individuals between the age of 12 to 18 years before the tertiary education.